Overview – Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in the way the body regulates and uses sugar (glucose) as a fuel. This long-term (chronic) condition results in too much sugar circulating in the bloodstream. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to disorders of the circulatory, nervous and immune systems.
- In type 2 diabetes, there are primarily two interrelated problems at work.
- Your pancreas does not produce enough insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — and cells respond poorly to insulin and take in less sugar.
- Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can begin during childhood and adulthood.
Type 2 is more common in older adults, but the increase in the number of children with obesity has led to more cases of type 2 diabetes in younger people. There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help you manage the disease.
What is the difference between type 2 diabetes and diabetes mellitus?
What Is It? – Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That’s because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood.
However, more and more children and teens are developing this condition. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and is really a different disease. But it shares with type 1 diabetes high blood sugar levels, and the complications of high blood sugar. During digestion, food is broken down into basic components.
Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, primarily glucose. Glucose is a critically important source of energy for the body’s cells. To provide energy to the cells, glucose needs to leave the blood and get inside the cells. Insulin traveling in the blood signals the cells to take up glucose.
- Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas.
- The pancreas is an organ in the abdomen.
- When levels of glucose in the blood rise (for example, after a meal), the pancreas produces more insulin.
- Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body’s cells resist the normal effect of insulin, which is to drive glucose in the blood into the inside of the cells.
This condition is called insulin resistance. As a result, glucose starts to build up in the blood. In people with insulin resistance, the pancreas “sees” the blood glucose level rising. The pancreas responds by making extra insulin to maintain a normal blood sugar.
Can you live a long life with diabetes 2?
Life expectancy can be increased by 3 years or in some cases as much as 10 years. At age 50, life expectancy- the number of years a person is expected to live- is 6 years shorter for people with type 2 diabetes than for people without it. People with type 2 diabetes can reduce their risk of complications and live longer by achieving their treatment goals.
What happens if diabetes mellitus is left untreated?
Costs and Consequences is a blog series examining the health care burden of not treating diseases. Too often, the rhetoric focuses solely on the cost of medicines and disregards the adverse societal and economic impacts of not treating diseases. Stay tuned for the next post in the series and be sure to share your thoughts in the comments section below.
Diabetes is a leading cause of death in the United States and its prevalence is rising at an alarming rate. Every 30 seconds a new diabetes case is diagnosed, with almost 2 million Americans newly diagnosed each year. Currently, more than 29 million people – one in 10 American adults – have diabetes. If trends continue as many as one–in-three Americans could face the disease by 2050.
Diabetes is a complex, chronic condition that requires consistent medical care and treatment to help control blood sugar levels. If left untreated, diabetes can lead to devastating complications, such as heart disease, nerve damage, blindness, kidney failure and amputations.
And the risk of death for adults with diabetes is 50 percent higher than for adults without diabetes. The cost of not treating diabetes is detrimental to the patient, and also to society. According to the American Diabetes Association’s report, Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012, the total estimated cost of diabetes in 2012 was $245 billion – a 41 percent increase since 2007.
This includes $176 billion in direct medical costs and $69 billion in reduced productivity, such as increased absenteeism, reduced productivity while at work and lost productivity due to early mortality. And people with diabetes, on average, have medical costs twice as high as for people without diabetes. These costs are unsustainable and underscore the need to control diabetes with a proper treatment plan, including diet, exercise and medications. Adherence to treatment is especially critical as improved adherence to diabetes medications could result in over 1 million fewer emergency room visits and save $8.3 billion annually.
How is diabetes mellitus type 2 diagnosed?
Diagnosis – Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Results are interpreted as follows:
Below 5.7% is normal.5.7% to 6.4% is diagnosed as prediabetes.6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes.
If the A1C test isn’t available, or if you have certain conditions that interfere with an A1C test, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams of sugar per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles of sugar per liter (mmol/L) of blood.
Less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L ) is normal.100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L ) is diagnosed as prediabetes.126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L ) or higher on two separate tests is diagnosed as diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is less commonly used than the others, except during pregnancy. You’ll need to fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid at the doctor’s office. Blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours. Results are interpreted as follows:
Less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L ) is normal.140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L ) is diagnosed as prediabetes.200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L ) or higher after two hours suggests diabetes.
Screening. The American Diabetes Association recommends routine screening with diagnostic tests for type 2 diabetes in all adults age 35 or older and in the following groups:
People younger than 35 who are overweight or obese and have one or more risk factors associated with diabetes Women who have had gestational diabetes People who have been diagnosed with prediabetes Children who are overweight or obese and who have a family history of type 2 diabetes or other risk factors
Is diabetes mellitus type one or type two?
Type 2 Diabetes – Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes. But it’s become more common in children and teens over the past 20 years, largely because more young people are overweight or obese. About 90% of people with diabetes have type 2.
- When you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas usually creates some insulin.
- But either it’s not enough or your body doesn’t use it like it should.
- Insulin resistance, when your cells don’t respond to insulin, usually happens in fat, liver, and muscle cells.
- Type 2 diabetes is often milder than type 1.
But it can still cause major health complications, especially in the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, nerves, and eyes. Type 2 also raises your risk of heart disease and stroke, People who are obese – more than 20% over their target body weight for their height – have an especially high risk of type 2 diabetes and the health problems that can follow.
Obesity often causes insulin resistance, so your pancreas has to work harder to make more insulin. But it’s still not enough to keep your blood sugar levels where they should be. Treatment for type 2 diabetes involves keeping a healthy weight, eating right, and exercising. Some people need medication, too.
Your doctor might do an A1C test a few times a year to see how well you’ve been controlling your blood sugar.