How To Prevent Gestational Diabetes?

How To Prevent Gestational Diabetes
Prevention – Before you get pregnant, you may be able to prevent gestational diabetes by losing weight if you’re overweight and getting regular physical activity, Don’t try to lose weight if you’re already pregnant. You’ll need to gain some weight—but not too quickly—for your baby to be healthy. Talk to your doctor about how much weight you should gain for a healthy pregnancy.

Can gestational diabetes be cured while pregnant?

Can you get rid of gestational diabetes while pregnant? – No, you can’t get rid of gestational diabetes once you have it. After you’re diagnosed with the condition, you’re not tested again for diabetes until after your baby is born. It’s recommended to get tested for diabetes within 12 weeks after your baby is born.

  1. It’s not entirely preventable, but you can take steps to reduce your risk.
  2. Eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise before and during your pregnancy is the best way to reduce your risk of developing gestational diabetes.
  3. Yes, you can still have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby if you have gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a highly treatable and manageable condition. Work with your healthcare provider to make sure you understand your treatment plan and how you can keep your blood sugar levels at a healthy level.

What if I ate a lot of sugar during pregnancy?

References – 1. Zylke J.W., Bauchner H. JAMA—Journal of the American Medical Association. American Medical Association; Chicago, IL, USA: 2018. pp.443–444.2. Ogden C.L., Carroll M.D., Kit B.K., Flegal K.M. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012.

  1. JAMA J. Am. Med.
  2. Assoc.2014; 311 :806–814.
  3. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.732.3.
  4. Daniels S.R., Arnett D.K., Eckel R.H., Gidding S.S., Hayman L.L., Kumanyika S., Robinson T.N., Scott B.J., St.
  5. Jeor S., Williams C.L.
  6. Overweight in Children and Adolescents.
  7. Circulation.2005; 111 :1999–2012.
  8. Doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000161369.71722.10.4.

Crume T.L., Harrod C.S. Childhood obesity is there effective treatment? JAMA Pediatr.2013; 167 :697–699. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.102.5. Scimeca G., Alborghetti A., Bruno A., Troili G.M., Pandolfo G., Muscatello M.R.A., Zoccali R.A. Self-worth and psychological adjustment of obese children: An analysis through the Draw-A-Person.

  1. World J. Psychiatry.2016; 6 :329.
  2. Doi: 10.5498/wjp.v6.i3.329.6.
  3. Thompson A.E.
  4. Childhood obesity. JAMA J. Am. Med.
  5. Assoc.2015; 314 :850.
  6. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.6674.9.
  7. Azaïs-Braesco V., Sluik D., Maillot M., Kok F., Moreno L.A.
  8. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe.
  9. Nutr.J.2017; 16 :6.10.

Cioffi C.E., Figueroa J., Welsh J.A. Added Sugar Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2012.J. Acad. Nutr. Diet.2018; 118 :886–895.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.10.021.11. Malik V.S., Willett W.C., Hu F.B.

  • Sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI in children and adolescents: Reanalyses of a meta-analysis. Am.J. Clin.
  • Nutr.2009; 89 :438–439.
  • Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26980.12.
  • Malik V.S., Popkin B.M., Bray G.A., Després J.P., Willett W.C., Hu F.B.
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis.

Diabetes Care.2010; 33 :2477–2483. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1079.13. Malik V.S., Pan A., Willett W.C., Hu F.B. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2013; 98 :1084–1102. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.058362.14.

  • Collison K.S., Zaidi M.Z., Subhani S.N., Al-Rubeaan K., Shoukri M., Al-Mohanna F.A.
  • Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.
  • BMC Public Health.2010; 10 :234.
  • Doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-234.15.
  • Chen L., Hu F.B., Yeung E., Willett W., Zhang C.

Prospective study of pre-gravid sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care.2009; 32 :2236–2241. doi: 10.2337/dc09-0866.16. Gamba R.J., Leung C.W., Petito L., Abrams B., Laraia B.A. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy is associated with lower diet quality and greater total energy intake.

  • PLoS ONE.2019; 14 :e0215686.
  • Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215686.17.
  • Mijatovic-Vukas J., Capling L., Cheng S., Stamatakis E., Louie J., Wah Cheung N., Markovic T., Ross G., Senior A., Brand-Miller J.C., et al.
  • Associations of diet and physical activity with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus: A Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nutrients.2018; 10 :698. doi: 10.3390/nu10060698.18. Al Wattar B.H., Dodds J., Placzek A., Beresford L., Spyreli E., Moore A., Gonzalez Carreras F.J., Austin F., Murugesu N., Roseboom T.J., et al. Mediterranean-style diet in pregnant women with metabolic risk factors (ESTEEM): A pragmatic multicentre randomised trial.

PLoS Med.2019; 16 :e1002857. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002857.19. Ikem E., Halldorsson T., Birgisdóttir B., Rasmussen M., Olsen S., Maslova E. Dietary patterns and the risk of pregnancy-associated hypertension in the Danish National Birth Cohort: A prospective longitudinal study. BJOG Int.J. Obstet. Gynaecol.2019; 126 :663–673.

doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15593.20. Halldorsson T.I., Strøm M., Petersen S.B., Olsen S.F. Intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of preterm delivery: A prospective cohort study in 59,334 Danish pregnant women. Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2010; 92 :626–633.

doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28968.21. Brantsæter A.L., Haugen M., Samuelsen S.O., Torjusen H., Trogstad L., Alexander J., Magnus P., Meltzer H.M. A Dietary Pattern Characterized by High Intake of Vegetables, Fruits, and Vegetable Oils Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Preeclampsia in Nulliparous Pregnant Norwegian Women.J.

Nutr.2009; 139 :1162–1168. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.104968.22. Englund-Ögge L., Brantsæter A.L., Sengpiel V., Haugen M., Birgisdottir B.E., Myhre R., Meltzer H.M., Jacobsson B. Maternal dietary patterns and preterm delivery: Results from large prospective cohort study.

BMJ.2014; 348 :g1446. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g1446.23. de Seymour J., Chia A., Colega M., Jones B., McKenzie E., Shirong C., Godfrey K., Kwek K., Saw S.M., Conlon C., et al. Maternal dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort: The GUSTO study. Nutrients.2016; 8 :574. doi: 10.3390/nu8090574.24.

Rasmussen M.A., Maslova E., Halldorsson T.I., Olsen S.F. Characterization of dietary patterns in the Danish National Birth Cohort in relation to preterm birth. PLoS ONE.2014; 9 :e93644. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093644.25. Agha-Jaffar R., Oliver N., Johnston D., Robinson S.

Gestational diabetes mellitus: Does an effective prevention strategy exist? Nat. Rev. Endocrinol.2016; 12 :533–546. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.88.26. Kjøllesdal M.K.R., Holmboe-Ottesen G. Dietary Patterns and Birth Weight—A Review. AIMS Public Health.2014; 1 :211–225. doi: 10.3934/Publichealth.2014.4.211.27.

Horan M.K., Donnelly J.M., McGowan C.A., Gibney E.R., McAuliffe F.M. The association between maternal nutrition and lifestyle during pregnancy and 2-year-old offspring adiposity: Analysis from the ROLO study.J. Public Health.2016; 24 :427–436. doi: 10.1007/s10389-016-0740-9.28.

  • Bayley T.M., Dye L., Jones S., DeBono M., Hill A.J.
  • Food cravings and aversions during pregnancy: Relationships with nausea and vomiting.
  • Appetite.2002; 38 :45–51.
  • Doi: 10.1006/appe.2002.0470.29.
  • Pope J.F., Skinner J.D., Carruth B.R.
  • Cravings and aversions of pregnant adolescents.J. Am. Diet.
  • Assoc.1992; 92 :1479–1482.30.
See also:  How Many Types Of Diabetes?

Hook E.B. Influence of Cravings and Aversions on Diet In Pregnancy. Ecol. Food Nutr.1985; 17 :117–129.31. Hook E.B. Dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy. Am.J. Clin. Nutr.1978; 31 :1355–1362. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/31.8.1355.32. Orloff N.C., Hormes J.M. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: Hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research.

Front. Psychol.2014; 5 :1076. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01076.33. Belzer L.M., Smulian J.C., Lu S.E., Tepper B.J. Food cravings and intake of sweet foods in healthy pregnancy and mild gestational diabetes mellitus. A prospective study. Appetite.2010; 55 :609–615. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2010.09.014.34. Kaiser L.L., Allen L.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.J. Am. Diet. Assoc.2002; 102 :1479–1490. doi: 10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90327-5.35. Muktabhant B., Lumbiganon P., Ngamjarus C., Dowswell T. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

  1. Volume 4 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; Hoboken, NJ, USA: 2012.
  2. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy.36.
  3. The International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) Collaborative Group Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes: Meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials.

BMJ.2017; 358 :j3119.37. Poston L., Bell R., Croker H., Flynn A.C., Godfrey K.M., Goff L., Hayes L., Khazaezadeh N., Nelson S.M., Oteng-Ntim E., et al. Effect of a behavioural intervention in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT study): A multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

  1. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol.2015; 3 :767–777.
  2. Doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00227-2.38.
  3. Petrella E., Malavolti M., Bertarini V., Pignatti L., Neri I., Battistini N.C., Facchinetti F.
  4. Gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle and eating habits program.J. Matern.
  5. Neonatal Med.2014; 27 :1348–1352.

doi: 10.3109/14767058.2013.858318.39. Renault K.M., Carlsen E.M., Nørgaard K., Nilas L., Pryds O., Secher N.J., Olsen S.F., Halldorsson T.I. Intake of sweets, snacks and soft drinks predicts weight gain in obese pregnant women: Detailed analysis of the results of a randomised controlled trial.

PLoS ONE.2015; 10 :e0133041. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133041.40. Diemert A., Lezius S., Pagenkemper M., Hansen G., Drozdowska A., Hecher K., Arck P., Zyriax B.C. Maternal nutrition, inadequate gestational weight gain and birth weight: Results from a prospective birth cohort. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.2016; 16 :224.

doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1012-y.41. Olafsdottir A.S., Skuladottir G.V., Thorsdottir I., Hauksson A., Steingrimsdottir L. Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain. Int.J. Obes.2006; 30 :492–499. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803184.42. Maslova E., Halldorsson T., Astrup A., Olsen S.F.

  1. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain: A prospective cohort study.
  2. BMJ Open.2015; 5 :e005839.
  3. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005839.43.
  4. Uusitalo U., Arkkola T., Ovaskainen M.L., Kronberg-Kippilä C., Kenward M.G., Veijola R., Simell O., Knip M., Virtanen S.M.

Unhealthy dietary patterns are associated with weight gain during pregnancy among Finnish women. Public Health Nutr.2009; 12 :2392–2399. doi: 10.1017/S136898000900528X.44. Shin D., Lee K.W., Song W.O. Dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Nutrients.2015; 7 :9369–9382. doi: 10.3390/nu7115472.45. Donazar-Ezcurra M., Lopez-del Burgo C., Martinez-Gonzalez M.A., Basterra-Gortari F.J., de Irala J., Bes-Rastrollo M. Soft drink consumption and gestational diabetes risk in the SUN project. Clin. Nutr.2018; 37 :638–645. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.02.005.46.

Ley S.H., Hanley A.J., Retnakaran R., Sermer M., Zinman B., O’Connor D.L. Effect of macronutrient intake during the second trimester on glucose metabolism later in pregnancy. Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2011; 94 :1232–1240. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.018861.47. Borgen I., Aamodt G., Harsem N., Haugen M., Meltzer H.M., Brantsæter A.L.

  1. Maternal sugar consumption and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous Norwegian women. Eur.J. Clin.
  2. Nutr.2012; 66 :920–925.
  3. Doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.61.48.
  4. Schoenaker D.A.J.M., Soedamah-Muthu S.S., Callaway L.K., Mishra G.D.
  5. Prepregnancy dietary patterns and risk of developing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: Results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health.

Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2015; 102 :94–101. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.102475.49. Clausen T., Slott M., Solvoll K., Drevon C.A., Vollset S.E., Henriksen T. High intake of energy, sucrose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia.

  • Am.J. Obstet.
  • Gynecol.2001; 185 :451–458.
  • Doi: 10.1067/mob.2001.116687.50.
  • Englund-Ögge L., Brantsæter A.L., Haugen M., Sengpiel V., Khatibi A., Myhre R., Myking S., Meltzer H.M., Kacerovsky M., Nilsen R.M., et al.
  • Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: A large prospective cohort study.

Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2012; 96 :552–559. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.031567.51. Petherick E.S., Goran M.I., Wright J. Relationship between artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened cola beverage consumption during pregnancy and preterm delivery in a multi-ethnic cohort: Analysis of the Born in Bradford cohort study.

Eur.J. Clin. Nutr.2014; 68 :404–407. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.267.52. Voerman E., Santos S., Golab B.P., Amiano P., Ballester F., Barros H., Bergström A., Charles M.A., Chatzi L., Chevrier C., et al. Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood: An individual participant data meta-analysis.

PLoS Med.2019; 16 :e1002744. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002744.53. Litvak J., Parekh N., Deierlein A. Prenatal dietary exposures and offspring body size from 6 months to 18 years: A systematic review. Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol.2020; 34 :171–189. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12629.54.

Dodd J.M., Turnbull D., McPhee A.J., Deussen A.R., Grivell R.M., Yelland L.N., Crowther C.A., Wittert G., Owens J.A., Robinson J.S. Antenatal lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese: LIMIT randomised trial. BMJ.2014; 348 :g1285. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g1285.55. Phelan S., Hart C., Phipps M., Abrams B., Schaffner A., Adams A., Wing R.

Maternal Behaviors during Pregnancy Impact Offspring Obesity Risk. Exp. Diabetes Res.2011; 2011 doi: 10.1155/2011/985139.56. Chen L.W., Aris I.M., Bernard J.Y., Tint M.T., Colega M., Gluckman P.D., Tan K.H., Shek L.P.C., Chong Y.S., Yap F., et al. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

  1. Am.J. Clin.
  2. Nutr.2017; 105 :705–713.
  3. Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.148270.57.
  4. Quah P.L., Kleijweg J., Chang Y.Y., Toh J.Y., Lim H.X., Sugianto R., Aris I.M., Yuan W.L., Tint M.T., Bernard J.Y., et al.
  5. Association of sugar-sweetened beverage intake at 18 months and 5 years of age with adiposity outcomes at 6 years of age: The Singapore GUSTO mother-offspring cohort.

Br.J. Nutr.2019; 122 :1303–1312. doi: 10.1017/S0007114519002253.58. Gillman M.W., Rifas-Shiman S.L., Fernandez-Barres S., Kleinman K., Taveras E.M., Oken E. Beverage intake during pregnancy and childhood adiposity. Pediatrics.2017; 140 :e20170031. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0031.59.

Jen V., Erler N.S., Tielemans M.J., Braun K.V.E., Jaddoe V.W.V., Franco O.H., Voortman T. Mothers’ intake of sugar-containing beverages during pregnancy and body composition of their children during childhood: The Generation R Study. Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2017; 105 :834–841. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.147934.60. Hu Z., Tylavsky F.A., Kocak M., Fowke J.H., Han J.C., Davis R.L., Lewinn K.Z., Bush N.R., Sathyanarayana S., Karr C.J., et al.

Effects of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy on early childhood growth trajectories and obesity risk: The CANDLE study. Nutrients.2020; 12 :465. doi: 10.3390/nu12020465.61. Azad M.B., Sharma A.K., De Souza R.J., Dolinsky V.W., Becker A.B., Mandhane P.J., Turvey S.E., Subbarao P., Lefebvre D.L., Sears M.R., et al.

  1. Association between artificially sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy and infant body mass index.
  2. JAMA Pediatr.2016; 170 :662–670.
  3. Doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0301.62.
  4. Zhu Y., Olsen S.F., Mendola P., Halldorsson T.I., Rawal S., Hinkle S.N., Yeung E.H., Chavarro J.E., Grunnet L.G., Granströ C., et al.
See also:  Tepung Yang Aman Untuk Penderita Diabetes?

Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, and offspring growth through 7 years of age: A prospective cohort study. Int.J. Epidemiol.2017; 46 :1499–1508. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyx095.63. Cohen J.F.W., Rifas-Shiman S.L., Young J., Oken E.

Associations of Prenatal and Child Sugar Intake With Child Cognition. Am.J. Prev. Med.2018; 54 :727–735. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.02.020.64. Bédard A., Northstone K., Henderson A.J., Shaheen S.O. Maternal intake of sugar during pregnancy and childhood respiratory and atopic outcomes. Eur. Respir.J.2017; 50 :1700073.

doi: 10.1183/13993003.00073-2017.65. Desoye G., Nolan C.J. The fetal glucose steal: An underappreciated phenomenon in diabetic pregnancy. Diabetologia.2016; 59 :1089–1094. doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-3931-6.66. Goldstein R.F., Abell S.K., Ranasinha S., Misso M., Boyle J.A., Black M.H., Li N., Hu G., Corrado F., Rode L., et al.

  1. Association of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA J. Am. Med.
  2. Assoc.2017; 317 :2207–2225.
  3. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.3635.67.
  4. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council,
  5. Composition and Components of Gestational Weight Gain: Physiology and Metabolism.

In: Rasmussen K.M., Yaktine A.L., editors. Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. The National Academies Press (US); Washington, DC, USA: 2009. pp.71–110.68. Flegal K.M., Kruszon-Moran D., Carroll M.D., Fryar C.D., Ogden C.L. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014.

  1. JAMA J. Am. Med.
  2. Assoc.2016; 315 :2284–2291.
  3. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.6458.69.
  4. Gavard J.A., Artal R.
  5. The association of gestational weight gain with birth weight in obese pregnant women by obesity class and diabetic status: A population-based historical cohort study. Matern.
  6. Child Health J.2014; 18 :1038–1047.

doi: 10.1007/s10995-013-1356-0.70. Voerman E., Santos S., Inskip H., Amiano P., Barros H., Charles M.A., Chatzi L., Chrousos G.P., Corpeleijn E., Crozier S., et al. Association of Gestational Weight Gain with Adverse Maternal and Infant Outcomes. JAMA.2019; 321 :1702–1715.71.

  • Wrottesley S.V., Pisa P.T., Norris S.A.
  • The influence of maternal dietary patterns on body mass index and gestational weight gain in urban black South African women.
  • Nutrients.2017; 9 :732.
  • Doi: 10.3390/nu9070732.72.
  • Tielemans M.J., Erler N.S., Leermakers E.T.M., van den Broek M., Jaddoe V.W.V., Steegers E.A.P., Kiefte-de Jong J.C., Franco O.H.

A Priori and a Posteriori dietary patterns during pregnancy and gestational weight gain: The generation R study. Nutrients.2015; 7 :9383–9399. doi: 10.3390/nu7115476.73. Starling A.P., Sauder K.A., Kaar J.L., Shapiro A.L., Siega-Riz A.M., Dabelea D. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Newborn Body Composition.J.

  • Nutr.2017; 147 :1334–1339.
  • Doi: 10.3945/jn.117.248948.74.
  • Coustan D.R., Lowe L.P., Metzger B.E., Dyer A.R.
  • The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study: Paving the way for new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Am.J. Obstet.
  • Gynecol.2010; 202 :654.e1–654.e6.
  • Doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.04.006.75.

Kim C., Newton K.M., Knopp R.H. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetes Care.2002; 25 :1862–1868. doi: 10.2337/diacare.25.10.1862.76. Bhupathiraju S.N., Hu F.B. Epidemiology of obesity and diabetes and their cardiovascular complications.

  1. Circ. Res.2016; 118 :1723–1735.
  2. Doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306825.77.
  3. Linne Y., Barkeling B., Rossner S.
  4. Natural course of gestational diabetes mellitus: Long term follow up of women in the SPAWN study.
  5. BJOG Int.J. Obstet.
  6. Gynaecol.2002; 109 :1227–1231.
  7. Doi: 10.1046/j.1471-0528.2002.01373.x.78.
  8. Lehnen H., Zechner U., Haaf T.

Epigenetics of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Offspring Health: The Time for Action Is in Early Stages of Life. Mol. Hum. Reprod.2013; 19 :415–422. doi: 10.1093/molehr/gat020.79. Assaf-Balut C., De La Torre N.G., Durán A., Fuentes M., Bordiú E., Del Valle L., Familiar C., Ortolá A., Jiménez I., Herraiz M.A., et al.

A Mediterranean diet with additional extra virgin olive oil and pistachios reduces the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): A randomized controlled trial: The St. Carlos GDM prevention study. PLoS ONE.2017; 12 :e0185873. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185873.80. Karamanos B., Thanopoulou A., Anastasiou E., Assaad-Khalil S., Albache N., Bachaoui M., Slama C.B., El Ghomari H., Jotic A., Lalic N., et al.

Relation of the Mediterranean diet with the incidence of gestational diabetes. Eur.J. Clin. Nutr.2014; 68 :8–13. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.177.81. Yamamoto J.M., Kellett J.E., Balsells M., García-Patterson A., Hadar E., Solà I., Gich I., Van der Beek E.M., Castañeda-Gutiérrez E., Heinonen S., et al.

Gestational diabetes mellitus and diet: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the impact of modified dietary interventions on maternal glucose control and neonatal birth weight. Diabetes Care.2018; 41 :1346–1361. doi: 10.2337/dc18-0102.82. Kibret K.T., Chojenta C., Gresham E., Tegegne T.K., Loxton D.

Maternal dietary patterns and risk of adverse pregnancy (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus) and birth (preterm birth and low birth weight) outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr.2019; 22 :506–520.

  • Doi: 10.1017/S1368980018002616.83.
  • Donazar-Ezcurra M., López-del Burgo C., Bes-Rastrollo M.
  • Primary prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus through nutritional factors: A systematic review.
  • BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.2017; 17 :30.
  • Doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1205-4.84.
  • Brunner S., Stecher L., Ziebarth S., Nehring I., Rifas-Shiman S.L., Sommer C., Hauner H., von Kries R.

Excessive gestational weight gain prior to glucose screening and the risk of gestational diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetologia.2015; 58 :2229–2237. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3686-5.85. Goran M.I., Plows J.F., Ventura E.E. Effects of consuming sugars and alternative sweeteners during pregnancy on maternal and child health: Evidence for a secondhand sugar effect.

See also:  Apa Itu Komplikasi Diabetes?

Proc. Nutr. Soc.2019; 78 :262–271. doi: 10.1017/S002966511800263X.86. Zhang C., Ning Y. Effect of dietary and lifestyle factors on the risk of gestational diabetes: Review of epidemiologic evidence. Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2011; 94 :1975S–1979S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.001032.87. Davis J.N., Alexander K.E., Ventura E.E., Kelly L.A., Lane C.J., Byrd-Williams C.E., Toledo-Corral C.M., Roberts C.K., Spruijt-Metz D., Weigensberg M.J., et al.

Associations of dietary sugar and glycemic index with adiposity and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth 1–3. Am.J. Clin. Nutr.2007; 86 :1331–1338. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1331.88. Lain K.Y., Roberts J.M. Contemporary concepts of the pathogenesis and management of preeclampsia.J.

  • Am. Med. Assoc.2002; 287 :3183–3186.
  • Doi: 10.1001/jama.287.24.3183.90.
  • Arulkumaran N., Lightstone L.
  • Severe pre-eclampsia and hypertensive crises.
  • Best Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet.
  • Gynaecol.2013; 27 :877–884.
  • Doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.07.003.91.
  • American College of Obstetricians.
  • Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy Hypertension in pregnancy Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy.

Obstet. Gynecol.2013; 122 :1122–1131.92. Schoenaker D.A.J.M., Soedamah-Muthu S.S., Mishra G.D. The association between dietary factors and gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMC Med.2014; 12 :157.

  • Doi: 10.1186/s12916-014-0157-7.93.
  • Whitaker R.C.
  • Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: The role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy.
  • Pediatrics.2004; 114 :e29–e36.
  • Doi: 10.1542/peds.114.1.e29.94.
  • Li C., Goran M.I., Kaur H., Nollen N., Ahluwalia J.S.
  • Developmental trajectories of overweight during childhood: Role of early life factors.

Obesity.2007; 15 :760–771. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.585.95. Vickers M.H., Clayton Z.E., Yap C., Sloboda D.M. Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy and lactation alters placental growth and leads to sex-specific changes in fetal and neonatal endocrine function.

  1. Endocrinology.2011; 152 :1378–1387.
  2. Doi: 10.1210/en.2010-1093.96.
  3. Boyle E.M., Poulsen G., Field D.J., Kurinczuk J.J., Wolke D., Alfirevic Z., Quigley M.A.
  4. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 3 and 5 years of age: Population based cohort study.
  5. BMJ.2012; 344 :e896.
  6. Doi: 10.1136/bmj.e896.97.

Blencowe H., Cousens S., Oestergaard M.Z., Chou D., Moller A.B., Narwal R., Adler A., Vera Garcia C., Rohde S., Say L., et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: A systematic analysis and implications.

  1. Lancet.2012; 379 :2162–2172.
  2. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60820-4.98.
  3. Zerfu T.A., Umeta M., Baye K.
  4. Dietary diversity during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of maternal anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in a prospective cohort study in rural Ethiopia. Am.J. Clin.
  5. Nutr.2016; 103 :1482–1488.

doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.116798.99. Martin C.L., Sotres-Alvarez D., Siega-Riz A.M. Maternal Dietary Patterns during the Second Trimester Are Associated with Preterm Birth.J. Nutr.2015; 145 :1857–1864. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.212019.100. Walker M.E., Xanthakis V., Moore L.L., Vasan R.S., Jacques P.F.

Does gestational diabetes cause autism in baby?

What’s The Autism-Diabetes Link? – Scientists have been trying to tease out the relationship between a mother’s diabetes and her child’s autism in recent years. Researchers at Kaiser Permanente Southern California examined the prenatal records of more than 322,000 mothers; almost 3,400 of their children were later diagnosed with autism.

In analyzing data, they took into account other factors that could affect the results, such as a mother’s age, race, ethnicity, level of education, and history of heart, lung, kidney or liver disease, or cancer. They also looked at smoking and weight in a subset of the mothers. They made those adjustments to ensure they were only calculating the effect of diabetes on autism risk.1 They found that moms diagnosed with gestational diabetes by 26 weeks of pregnancy were 42 percent more likely to have a child with autism, compared to women without diabetes.1 To put it in perspective, the risk of having a child with autism is about 1.5 percent; gestational diabetes raises the risk to a little over 2 percent, according to that study.

Interestingly, women who were diagnosed with diabetes after 26 weeks of pregnancy did not have a higher risk of having a child with ASD. Perhaps that is because those children were exposed to high blood sugar after a period of critical brain development had passed, or because their mothers’ diabetes was mild, the researchers speculated.1 In the United States, most doctors screen pregnant women for diabetes between their 24th and 28th week of pregnancy because that is when gestational diabetes usually develops.

What can I eat for breakfast with gestational diabetes while pregnant?

Top tips for healthy eating with gestational diabetes –

Have some veggies like salad or cooked vegetables at every meal. Two handfuls will do the trick. Have two portions of fruit a day and choose low GI options like apples, pears, citrus and stone fruit. Choose wholegrain cereals with bran and oats, or natural muesli for breakfast. Choose grainy or seeded bread and bread rolls for extra fibre and slow release energy. Use low GI white or brown rice and pasta in your favourite family recipes. Choose reduced fat milk and cheese and low-fat plain yoghurt. Add your own fruit, seeds and nuts for flavour and crunch. Pick lean cuts of meat, take the skin off chicken, and include fish, eggs, tofu, nuts, seeds and legumes for more protein variety. Use olive and canola oil and avocado for a dose of healthy fats.

Avoid foods and drinks with added sugars and little nutritional value like soft drinks, cordial, cakes, lollies and biscuits. Although it’s fine to have these every now and again, if you have them regularly you’ll end up missing out on those important nutrients for you and your baby.

Soft cheeses (brie, camembert, ricotta, feta and blue cheese) and unpasteurized dairy products Sandwich meats and other cold meats Store bought sushi Bean sprouts Pre-prepared salads Pate Raw eggs Alcohol Fish that may contain high levels of mercury.

Always freshly wash salads and raw vegetables. Reheat leftovers until they are piping hot (above 60 degrees).

Does walking help in gestational diabetes?

Conclusion – Simple walking for light intensity physical activity is effective for controlling the CGL in pregnant women with GDM. We recommend that pregnant women with GDM should walk a minimum of 6000 steps/day. Keywords: casual glucose level, daily walking, gestational diabetes mellitus, physical activity