What is type 1 diabetes? A Mayo Clinic expert explains – Learn more about type 1 diabetes from endocrinologist Yogish Kudva, M.B.B.S. I’m Dr. Yogish C. Kudva an endocrinologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of type 1 diabetes. What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
- Whether you’re looking for answers for yourself or someone you love.
- We are here to give you the best information available.
- Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the insulin making cells of the pancreas.
- It’s estimated that about 1.25 million Americans live with it.
- People with type 1 diabetes don’t make enough insulin.
An important hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin allows your cells to store sugar or glucose and fat and produce energy. Unfortunately, there is no known cure. But treatment can prevent complications and also improve everyday life for patients with type 1 diabetes.
Lots of people with type 1 diabetes live a full life. And the more we learn and develop treatment for the disorder, the better the outcome. We don’t know what exactly causes type 1 diabetes. We believe that it is an auto-immune disorder where the body mistakenly destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas.
Typically, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin circulates, letting sugar enter your cells. This sugar or glucose, is the main source of energy for cells in the brain, muscle cells, and other tissues. However, once most insulin producing cells are destroyed, the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin, meaning the glucose can’t enter the cells, resulting in an excess of blood sugar floating in the bloodstream.
This can cause life-threatening complications. And this condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis. Although we don’t know what causes it, we do know certain factors can contribute to the onset of type 1 diabetes. Family history. Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing it.
Genetics. The presence of certain genes can also indicate an increased risk. Geography. Type 1 diabetes becomes more common as you travel away from the equator. Age, although it can occur at any age there are two noticeable peaks. The first occurs in children between four and seven years of age and the second is between 10 and 14 years old.
Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can appear rather suddenly, especially in children. They may include increased thirst, frequent urination, bed wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed. Extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, fatigue and weakness, blurred vision, irritability, and other mood changes.
If you or your child are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should talk to your doctor. The best way to determine if you have type 1 diabetes is a blood test. There are different methods such as an A1C test, a random blood sugar test, or a fasting blood sugar test.
They are all effective and your doctor can help determine what’s appropriate for you. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may order additional tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes in the test called C-peptide, which measures the amount of insulin produced when checked simultaneously with a fasting glucose.
These tests can help distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when a diagnosis is uncertain. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering what treatment looks like. It could mean taking insulin, counting carbohydrates, fat protein, and monitoring your glucose frequently, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight.
Generally, those with type 1 diabetes will need lifelong insulin therapy. There are many different types of insulin and more are being developed that are more efficient. And what you may take may change. Again, your doctor will help you navigate what’s right for you. A significant advance in treatment from the last several years has been the development and availability of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pumps that automatically adjust insulin working with the continuous glucose monitor.
How do I know if I have diabetes?
This type of treatment is the best treatment at this time for type 1 diabetes. This is an exciting time for patients and for physicians that are keen to develop, prescribe such therapies. Surgery is another option. A successful pancreas transplant can erase the need for additional insulin.
However, transplants aren’t always available, not successful and the procedure can pose serious risks. Sometimes it may outweigh the dangers of diabetes itself. So transplants are often reserved for those with very difficult to manage conditions. A successful transplant can bring life transforming results.
However, surgery is always a serious endeavor and requires ample research and concentration from you, your family, and your medical team. The fact that we don’t know what causes type 1 diabetes can be alarming. The fact that we don’t have a cure for it even more so.
- But with the right doctor, medical team and treatment, type 1 diabetes can be managed.
- So those who live with it can get on living.
- If you would like to learn even more about type 1 diabetes, watch our other related videos or visit mayoclinic.org.
- We wish you well.
- Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose).
Glucose is an important source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and tissues. It’s also the brain’s main source of fuel. The main cause of diabetes varies by type. But no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in the blood.
Too much sugar in the blood can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes happens when blood sugar levels are higher than normal. But the blood sugar levels aren’t high enough to be called diabetes.
And prediabetes can lead to diabetes unless steps are taken to prevent it. Gestational diabetes happens during pregnancy. But it may go away after the baby is born.
How can I check if I have a diabetes?
Glucose Tolerance Test – This measures your blood sugar before and after you drink a liquid that contains glucose. You’ll fast (not eat) overnight before the test and have your blood drawn to determine your fasting blood sugar level. Then you’ll drink the liquid and have your blood sugar level checked 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours afterward.
Can I test for diabetes myself?
Testing for diabetes at home – Home testing kits bought over the counter can’t diagnose diabetes. Neither can testing equipment used by people with diabetes, like blood glucose meters. They will show only your blood sugar levels at the moment you test.
How long can you be a diabetic without knowing it?
When to see a doctor – Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include:
feeling very thirsty peeing more frequently than usual, particularly at nightfeeling very tiredweight loss and loss of muscle bulkitching around the penis or vagina, or frequent episodes of thrush cuts or wounds that heal slowlyblurred vision
Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days. Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general.
Can early signs of diabetes go away?
Type 1 diabetes does not go away on its own, but type 2 diabetes can go away if you modify your diet to a healthy one, maintain a healthy weight, and make healthy lifestyle choices. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body either produces insufficient or no insulin or doesn’t use insulin properly causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to rise ( hyperglycemia ).
Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes )
Little to no insulin is produced by the pancreas It is an autoimmune condition, which means it is chronic and will need to be managed for the rest of your life Does not go away on its own
Type 2 diabetes
The body doesn’t use insulin properly causing blood sugar levels to rise The most common form of diabetes May go away with proper diet, exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and lifestyle changes
Disrupts the way the body uses sugar (glucose) during pregnancy Occurs because pregnancy increases the body’s need for insulin, but the body cannot always make enough After delivery, gestational diabetes usually goes away and a woman’s blood sugar levels will return to normal
What Colour is urine in diabetes?
What questions should I ask my healthcare provider? – If you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes insipidus, it may be helpful to ask your healthcare provider the following questions:
What type of diabetes insipidus do I have? What caused my diabetes insipidus? Is my diabetes insipidus chronic or temporary? What are my treatment options? What are the benefits and risks of different treatment options? How much water should I be drinking in a day? Is there anything else I can do to manage my condition? Are my family members at risk for developing diabetes insipidus?
A note from Cleveland Clinic Diabetes insipidus is a rare but serious condition in which your body produces too much urine (pee) and isn’t able to properly retain water. The good news is that it’s treatable and manageable. If you have diabetes insipidus, it’s important to see your healthcare provider regularly to make sure your treatment is working.
Can diabetes make you gain weight?
What’s the connection between diabetes and weight gain? – When the bloodstream has excess blood sugar and insulin, the body is signaled to store sugar. Some sugar can be stored in the muscles and liver; however, most sugars are stored as fat when they have nowhere else to go.
- Thus, people with diabetes are more likely to be overweight or obese than those without the disease.
- While weight gain is one of the most common side effects of diabetes, it is not inevitable.
- One factor is medication.
- A recent study showed that most antidiabetic agents result in weight gain.
- This research could have important implications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,
Weight gain varies from person to person, depending on several factors, including medications. Other factors that affect weight gain include:
Age, sex, height Insulin amount released with each meal and the level of insulin resistance Genetic makeup, family history, and ethnicity Diet and exercise habits
If you’re undergoing diabetes treatment and consume overly fatty foods, you increase your risk of gaining weight. The same can be said if you maintain an inactive lifestyle. Currently, this lifestyle is still indirectly affected by COVID-19. With the pandemic, many jobs have become home-based. The increased sedentary lifestyle brought about by working from home has become a menace to weight gain.
What happens if you ignore diabetes?
10 Early Signs of Diabetes that Shouldn’t be Ignored Posted January 10, 2022 by James Salem, MD High blood sugar can cause gradual, unassuming symptoms that can sneak up on you. Frequent urination and excessive thirst — the telltale signs of type 2 diabetes — are often mild and can easily be attributed to other factors. In fact, most people don’t even know they have high blood sugar until they’re diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
- Is a chronic condition that causes glucose (or sugar) levels in the body to rise.
- The problem is ignoring or writing off the symptoms as something else can lead to more serious health complications later on.
- Left untreated, diabetes can lead to,, nerve and kidney damage, vision loss and more.
- Even if you have mild blood sugar elevations, you can damage your organs.
Diabetes is a common condition. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate more than 34 million people have diabetes in this country, with nearly 95 percent of those cases type 2 diabetes, and about 88 million more are prediabetic. Summa Health discusses 10 early warning signs of type 2 diabetes.
Even if you have subtle symptoms, it’s worth mentioning them to your doctor, especially if you’re at risk for diabetes. The higher the blood sugar level and the longer you go without treatment, the further damage that can be done. Frequent urination: Going to the bathroom more than normal, especially at night, is a sign of high blood sugar.
Diabetes causes the kidneys to work harder to remove excess sugar from your blood. When your kidneys can’t keep up, they spill excess sugar into your urine, leading to more frequent urination. Repeat infections: The excess sugar in your urine serves as food for yeast and bacteria.
- Food coupled with a warm, moist area helps them thrive.
- So people, especially women, with diabetes often experience frequent urinary tract or yeast infections.
- Excessive thirst: Frequent urination can cause dehydration and you to feel thirsty more often.
- But, drinking more doesn’t satisfy the thirst.
- Constant hunger: Your body converts the food you eat into glucose that your cells use for energy.
But if you have diabetes, the cells can’t absorb glucose correctly, so your body can’t get enough energy from the food you eat. Therefore, your body is constantly looking for fuel and you’ll feel hungry all the time, even if you just ate. Unexplained weight loss: If your body can’t get enough energy from your food, it will start burning muscle and fat stores instead.
- So, you may lose weight even if your diet hasn’t changed.
- Persistent fatigue and weakness: Without enough fuel for energy, you’re left with persistent fatigue and weakness that can interfere with daily activities.
- Being dehydrated from constant urination can leave you feeling exhausted, as well.
- Poor vision: High blood sugar can damage blood vessels in your and you may experience blurry vision in either one or both eyes.
If left untreated, permanent damage can occur and lead to more serious complications, even blindness. Slow healing cuts and wounds: High blood sugar can damage nerves and blood vessels, impairing blood circulation. Poor blood circulation restricts the necessary nutrients and oxygen from getting to for proper healing.
Tingling or numbness: Poor blood circulation and nerve damage can cause tingling, numbness or pain in your hands and feet. Dark skin patches: Diabetes can cause dark, velvety patches of skin in the folds of your neck, armpits or groin due to an excess of insulin in the blood. Regular testing is key to avoiding complications Because diabetes symptoms can be subtle, it’s important to see your doctor regularly for checkups and diabetes screening.The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends everyone age 45 and older be screened for diabetes. However, testing is recommended at any age if you have one or more risk factors for diabetes, including:
Being overweight or obese Sedentary lifestyle Poor diet
The test for diabetes is often a simple blood test. For normal results, the ADA recommends repeat screening every three years. If caught early, type 2 diabetes can be very manageable. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, can go a long way in managing the condition.
- Be sure to talk to your doctor about an evaluation at the first sign of symptoms.
- Early detection and treatment is vital to improving your quality of life and vastly reducing your risk of severe complications.
- Talk to a Summa Health about diabetes screening.
- To learn more about Summa Health Outpatient Diabetes Services, call 234.312.6420.
: 10 Early Signs of Diabetes that Shouldn’t be Ignored
What does untreated diabetes feel like?
Nerves – Over time, high blood sugar levels can harm your nerves. As many as 70% of people with diabetes get this type of damage.
Peripheral diabetic neuropathy can cause pain and burning or a loss of feeling in your feet. It usually starts with your toes. It can also affect your hands and other body parts. Autonomic neuropathy stems from damage to the nerves that control your internal organs. Symptoms include sexual problems, digestive issues (a condition called gastroparesis), trouble sensing when your bladder is full, dizziness and fainting, or not knowing when your blood sugar is low. Diabetic amyotrophy causes severe aching or burning and lancinating pain in the hip and thigh followed by weakness in the thigh muscles. This is a rare condition.
The good news: You have many options to treat your pain. The doctor might prescribe an anticonvulsant, which is typically prescribed for seizures but is often used for nerve pain. They could also give you drugs that go on your skin, like creams or patches. They might suggest you use a device that stimulates your nerves called TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation).
What are two warning signs of diabetes?
Symptoms – Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can be living with type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. When signs and symptoms are present, they may include:
Increased thirst Frequent urination Increased hunger Unintended weight loss Fatigue Blurred vision Slow-healing sores Frequent infections Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck
What does early diabetes feel like?
What are the First Signs of Being a Diabetic? – The first signs of insulin resistance typically come on very slowly for people with high blood sugar levels. Blurry vision, increased urination, feeling hungry, extreme thirst, and finding that you have itchy, dry skin are all warning signs that you could be in the early stages of type 2 diabetes.
- Some other signs may be harder to pin down.
- For women, an increase in the frequency of can be a sign of high blood sugar, but this is only one possible cause of a UTI.
- In the case of type 1 diabetes, the unexplained weight loss and vomiting can also come from a host of gastrointestinal conditions and diseases including serious conditions such as cancer.
Similarly, dry, itchy skin could be a sign you are progressing through the stages of prediabetes, but there are also a host of other that could be at play. One thing to consider is how slowly your symptoms appear or worsen. Typically, your blood sugar levels rise slowly over months or years, which can make the appearance of individual symptoms harder to spot.