Diabetes Mellitus Who 2018?

Diabetes Mellitus Who 2018
WHO / Panos / Atul Loke People getting their fasting sugar checked for diabetes at government initiated Kamala Raman Nagar dispensary. © Credits Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.

  1. The most common is type 2 diabetes, usually in adults, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t make enough insulin.
  2. In the past 3 decades the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has risen dramatically in countries of all income levels.
  3. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin by itself.

For people living with diabetes, access to affordable treatment, including insulin, is critical to their survival. There is a globally agreed target to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity by 2025. About 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, the majority living in low-and middle-income countries, and 1.5 million deaths are directly attributed to diabetes each year.

Both the number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily increasing over the past few decades. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include the need to urinate often, thirst, constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly. Symptoms for type 2 diabetes are generally similar to those of type 1 diabetes but are often less marked.

As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, after complications have already arisen. For this reason, it is important to be aware of risk factors. Type 1 diabetes cannot currently be prevented. Effective approaches are available to prevent type 2 diabetes and to prevent the complications and premature death that can result from all types of diabetes.

These include policies and practices across whole populations and within specific settings (school, home, workplace) that contribute to good health for everyone, regardless of whether they have diabetes, such as exercising regularly, eating healthily, avoiding smoking, and controlling blood pressure and lipids.

The starting point for living well with diabetes is an early diagnosis – the longer a person lives with undiagnosed and untreated diabetes, the worse their health outcomes are likely to be. Easy access to basic diagnostics, such as blood glucose testing, should therefore be available in primary health care settings.

What does the world Health Organization say about diabetes?

Key facts –

The number of people with diabetes rose from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. Prevalence has been rising more rapidly in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. Between 2000 and 2019, there was a 3% increase in diabetes mortality rates by age. In 2019, diabetes and kidney disease due to diabetes caused an estimated 2 million deaths. A healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications.

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What is the latest research on diabetes type 2 cure 2022?

Type 2 diabetes drug restores fat cells glucose management – University of Birmingham A potential new drug to treat type 2 diabetes enables fat cells function in usual way to process glucose, according to new research in Diabetes journal. Research in cell and animal models have shown that the peptide-based candidate drug restored proper function of fat cells to process glucose A new potential drug that could treat type 2 diabetes acts like a drawbridge password to let fat cells properly manage glucose, a new study in mice has found.

  1. The new research, published in today (13 July 2022), has found that a drug that targets a protein interaction on the surface of adipocytes or ‘fat cells’ may be able to re-establish typical insulin sensitivity, which is a key process in managing type 2 diabetes.
  2. These fat cells typically regulate blood glucose by absorbing it and storing it.

However, insulin resistance stops fat cells from being able to let in glucose and instead overspill toxic fat, leading to higher blood sugar levels and storage of fat in the wrong place causing a series of other issues. The team of international researchers, led by Inserm researcher Vincent Marion and his team at the Medical Genetics Laboratory (Inserm/Université de Strasbourg) in collaboration with the University of Birmingham and Monash University, have developed a potential new drug called PATAS, a peptide-derived treatment based on in-depth understanding of complex genetic disease known as Alström syndrome.

PATAS works by targeting a process in fat cells that regulates blood glucose. Two proteins which float around on the exterior of these fat cells are normally link together, and they split apart when insulin is present. When fat cells become insulin resistant, the protein link stops breaking apart in the presence of insulin, and glucose is blocked from coming in.

PATAS works to restore that natural process of breaking the link, allowing fat cells to regain their protective role in blood glucose regulation.

Can you permanently reverse type 2 diabetes?

Here’s how healthier habits may help some people reverse or better manage the disease. – Diabetes is a very common but serious medical condition. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 34 million Americans have it, with about 90-95% of them having type 2 diabetes. About 88 million people have prediabetes, a precursor to type 2 diabetes.

  1. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes.
  2. But it may be possible to reverse the condition to a point where you do not need medication to manage it and your body does not suffer ill effects from having blood sugar levels that are too high.
  3. Making positive lifestyle changes such as eating a well-balanced diet, exercising regularly and getting down to a healthy weight (and maintaining it) are the key to possibly reversing or managing type 2 diabetes.
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Other lifestyle changes may also help, including not smoking, getting enough sleep, limiting alcohol and managing stress. However, for some people this is still not enough and medication is needed to manage the condition.

What is new in 2023 diabetes Technology?

Dexcom G7 CGM : Thinner, smaller, and fully disposable, the Dexcom G7 is expected to last for a 14-day sensor session. It will also go from the current two hour warm up period (that the G6 offers) to a 30-minute warm-up period, significantly decreasing the amount of time spent without data.

How close are we to curing diabetes type 2?

Is there a cure for type 2 diabetes? – There’s no cure yet, but our scientists are working on a ground-breaking weight management study, to help people put their type 2 diabetes into remission, Remission is when blood glucose (or blood sugar) levels are in a normal range again.

  • This doesn’t mean diabetes has gone for good.
  • It’s still really important for people in remission to get regular healthcare checks.
  • But being in remission can be life changing.
  • Our ground-breaking study is called DiRECT, short for Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial, and it could completely change the way type 2 diabetes is treated in the future.

Latest on our low-calorie DiRECT study

What is normal HbA1c by age?

Reference values for HbA1c in age-groups – Healthy subpopulations of SHIP-0 and SHIP-Trend were combined to derive reference intervals for HbA1c in different age-groups (Table 3 ). For individuals aged 20–39 years the upper reference limit (URL) for HbA1c was 6.0% (42.1 mmolmol) increasing to 6.1% (43.2 mmol/mol) for individuals aged 40–59 years while for people aged ≥60 years the URL was 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol).

What is normal sugar level by age?

Normal Sugar Level By Age
Age Range Blood Glucose Levels (mg/dl)
0 to 5 years 100 to 180
6 to 9 years 80 to 140
10 years and more 70 to 120

What is the most accurate diabetes test?

Fasting plasma glucose test – The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test measures your blood glucose level at a single point in time. For the most reliable results, your doctor will give you the test in the morning after you have fasted for at least 8 hours. Fasting means having nothing to eat or drink except sips of water.

What is the new test for diabetes?

A1C testing is also used in managing diabetes. Usually the goal for someone in treatment for diabetes is 7 percent or less. However, your A1C goal will be individualized based on your health status. A1c test.

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Test result Indicated condition
6.5% or greater Diabetes

What is the best test to confirm diabetes?

Glucose Tolerance Test – This measures your blood sugar before and after you drink a liquid that contains glucose. You’ll fast (not eat) overnight before the test and have your blood drawn to determine your fasting blood sugar level. Then you’ll drink the liquid and have your blood sugar level checked 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours afterward.

WHO guidelines for diabetes management?

Beyond lifestyle modifications, WHO recommends metformin as the best first-line therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes, followed by several second-line therapeutic options; WHO also guides insulin choice for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in low-resource settings.

What is the recommended method for diabetes diagnosis?

You’ll need to get your blood sugar tested to find out for sure if you have prediabetes or type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. Testing is simple, and results are usually available quickly.

What is the criteria for diagnosing type 2 diabetes?

Diagnosis – Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Results are interpreted as follows:

Below 5.7% is normal.5.7% to 6.4% is diagnosed as prediabetes.6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes.

If the A1C test isn’t available, or if you have certain conditions that interfere with an A1C test, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams of sugar per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles of sugar per liter (mmol/L) of blood.

Less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L ) is normal.100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L ) is diagnosed as prediabetes.126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L ) or higher on two separate tests is diagnosed as diabetes.

Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is less commonly used than the others, except during pregnancy. You’ll need to fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid at the doctor’s office. Blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours. Results are interpreted as follows:

Less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L ) is normal.140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L ) is diagnosed as prediabetes.200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L ) or higher after two hours suggests diabetes.

Screening. The American Diabetes Association recommends routine screening with diagnostic tests for type 2 diabetes in all adults age 35 or older and in the following groups:

People younger than 35 who are overweight or obese and have one or more risk factors associated with diabetes Women who have had gestational diabetes People who have been diagnosed with prediabetes Children who are overweight or obese and who have a family history of type 2 diabetes or other risk factors