Diabetes Is Which Type Of Disease?

Diabetes Is Which Type Of Disease
Overview – Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose. Hyperglycaemia, also called raised blood glucose or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.

In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In 2019, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.5 million deaths and 48% of all deaths due to diabetes occurred before the age of 70 years. Another 460 000 kidney disease deaths were caused by diabetes, and raised blood glucose causes around 20% of cardiovascular deaths (1),

Between 2000 and 2019, there was a 3% increase in age-standardized mortality rates from diabetes. In lower-middle-income countries, the mortality rate due to diabetes increased 13%. By contrast, the probability of dying from any one of the four main noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases or diabetes) between the ages of 30 and 70 decreased by 22% globally between 2000 and 2019.

What kind of disease is diabetes?

With diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it as well as it should. Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) health condition that affects how your body turns food into energy. Your body breaks down most of the food you eat into sugar (glucose) and releases it into your bloodstream.

  • When your blood sugar goes up, it signals your pancreas to release insulin.
  • Insulin acts like a key to let the blood sugar into your body’s cells for use as energy.
  • With diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it as well as it should.
  • When there isn’t enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in your bloodstream.

Over time, that can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease, There isn’t a cure yet for diabetes, but losing weight, eating healthy food, and being active can really help. Other things you can do to help:

Take medicine as prescribed. Get diabetes self-management education and support. Make and keep health care appointments.

More than 37 million US adults have diabetes, and 1 in 5 of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is the No.1 cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations, and adult blindness. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than doubled,

What type of disease is Type 1 diabetes?

What Causes Type 1 Diabetes? – Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake). This reaction destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, called beta cells. This process can go on for months or years before any symptoms appear.

  • Some people have certain genes (traits passed on from parent to child) that make them more likely to develop type 1 diabetes.
  • However, many of them won’t go on to have type 1 diabetes even if they have the genes.
  • A trigger in the environment, such as a virus, may also play a part in developing type 1 diabetes.

Diet and lifestyle habits don’t cause type 1 diabetes.

Is diabetes a group of diseases?

Diabetes, as defined by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose (sugar). Diabetes results when the body is not able to produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that acts like a key to get the glucose from food into the cells.

  1. Without enough insulin the glucose stays in the blood stream.
  2. The consequences of too much sugar in the blood is that over time, several organs in the body are affected including the kidney, the eye, nerves and the cardiovascular system.
  3. Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease, which destroys the beta cells of the pancreas, which normally produce insulin.

Therefore, the person with type 1 diabetes must take multiple daily insulin injections. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5-10% of diabetes cases. Warning Signs for Type 1 diabetes: (usually come on suddenly)

Frequent thirst and urination Unexplained weight loss Extreme fatigue Blurry vision Weakness Nausea and vomiting Fruity odor on breath

Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. It accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body fails to make enough insulin or properly use it. Aspects of type 2 diabetes include:

Gradual onset often with few or no symptoms. Some people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood sugars through meal planning and exercise. Others will need medication, including insulin or other injectable medications. Most people with type 2 diabetes are over age 40; however, it is becoming increasingly more common among children and young adults.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:

Overweight Family history of diabetes High blood pressure/cholesterol History of Gestational diabetes Being African American, Native American, Asian, Hispanic American or Pacific Islander Pre-diabetes Polycystic ovary syndrome

Warning Signs for type 2: (often develop gradually) • Any warning sign listed for type 1 above • Vaginal yeast infections in women • Frequent infections • Cuts that are slow to heal • Tingling or numbness in feet or hands Often, no symptoms are present, and diabetes can be unnoticed for several years.

  • Meanwhile, the damaging effects of high blood sugar are beginning.
  • Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs in 4.1% of pregnancies in Connecticut.
  • Gestational diabetes usually requires treatment only during pregnancy but puts the mother, and the child, at high-risk for later development of diabetes.

Treatment involves meal planning, physical activity, and in some cases insulin. Treatment to bring the mother’s blood sugar into a healthy range helps prevent complications in the infant. These include low blood sugar at birth and larger size (greater than 9 lbs.).

Risk factors for Gestational diabetes include: • Overweight • Being an ethnic minority • Having a family history of diabetes For more information on prediabetes and how to prevent type 2 diabetes, please visit the Connecticut Department of Public Health’s Prediabetes Web Site, The diagnosis of diabetes is made when the symptoms described above are present and there is a random blood sugar greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl, or when a fasting blood sugar is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl.

Diabetes can also be diagnosed with a two-hour glucose tolerance test. This test involves drinking a sugary beverage and checking blood sugars. A result of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl two hours after the drink also means a diagnosis of diabetes.

In addition, an A1c value (the three month average of blood sugar) that is 6.5% or higher also means diabetes. Diabetes can affect many parts of the body causing serious health problems. If you have diabetes you need to be aware of these risks and take care of yourself to prevent complications. How can diabetes effect the heart and brain? Diabetes puts people at greater risk for heart disease and stroke.

In fact, heart disease and stroke are the most common complications of diabetes. Controlling blood glucose levels (A1c), blood pressure, and cholesterol can help prevent heart disease/stroke. Ask your health care provider about your ABCs (A1c, blood pressure and cholesterol).

Also, losing weight if necessary, and not smoking can all help decrease heart disease/stroke risk. How can diabetes effect the eyes? Diabetic eye disease or retinopathy causes damage to the blood vessels in the retina. This can cause severe vision loss or blindness. To reduce this risk good blood glucose and blood pressure control is important.

If you have diabetes, most doctors recommend a yearly-dilated eye exam. A dilated eye exam means eye drops are used to enlarge your pupils. This allows the inside of your eyes to be checked for signs of disease. Diabetes also puts people at higher risk of cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye) and glaucoma (increase in pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and loss of vision).

  1. How can diabetes effect the kidneys? High blood glucose levels can damage the kidneys.
  2. Idney disease (nephropathy) can lead to kidney failure.
  3. Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure.
  4. Steps to reduce the risk or slow kidney damage include: Achieving good glucose control, having your urine tested for protein in the urine (microalbuminuria) yearly and achieving good blood pressure control (130/80).
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How can diabetes effect the feet? Over time people with diabetes can damage the nerves in all parts of the body. This is called neuropathy. Nerve damage in the feet is the most common. It can lead to numbness or pain although some people have no symptoms.

If a person has numbness in their feet they may not feel a cut or blister which can go on to become infected. The longer a person has diabetes, the greater the risk of having nerve problems. However, when type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, half of the people already have signs of nerve damage in the feet. To prevent foot problems have a foot exam each year by a physician or trained health care provider.

Ask your doctor to show you how to care for your feet at home and if you smoke, quit. How is diabetes related to depression? Depression is more common in people with diabetes. Depression can make you want to “give up” or not care anymore about things, including diabetes.

This can make the control of your diabetes more difficult. Be sure to talk with your healthcare provider who can refer you for help. How is diabetes related to oral health? People with diabetes are more likely have gum disease, which can result in tooth loss. Disorders in the mouth may also lead to heart disease in people with diabetes.

Keep your mouth free of disease and your heart will benefit too. It is important to get dental check-ups twice a year, and floss and brush daily. Diabetes and Tobacco Smoking has many bad health effects. The best-known effect is that it causes cancer but it also damages the blood vessels and nerves.

Lower your chances of damage to the blood vessels and nerves by not smoking. For help to quit smoking, Connecticut residents can call the Quitline at 1-800-784-8669, Diabetes and Flu or Pneumonia If you have diabetes a flu shot could save your life. People with diabetes are more likely to get very sick from the flu and are more often hospitalized and more likely to die from flu.

Ask your doctor if the flu or pneumonia shot is right for you. The HealthMap Vaccine Finder can help you to find a clinic giving flu shots in your area of Connecticut. They have a web-based searchable database for public seasonal flu clinics. Please be sure and check the details section of each listing for any special requirements for the clinic.

Short-term problems There are also short-term concerns associated with diabetes. These include hypoglycemia, (low blood sugar) diabetic ketoacidosis, and very high blood sugars called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar states. Work with your health care team to learn how to prevent these. In addition, when blood sugars are higher than recommended, people tend to feel tired and run down.

For more information on diabetes self-management education and the locations of diabetes education centers and self-management programs, visit the Diabetes Prevention and Control Program’s Self-Management Education Web Site, Learn about the Diabetes Self-Management Program by watching this video (in Spanish).

Having diabetes requires special planning to keep blood sugars in control during an emergency. The Diabetes Disaster Information Brochure has useful information. To find a diabetes educator as well as some helpful, short diabetes videos, visit the following website: www.diabeteseducator.org For more information on the locations of diabetes education centers and self-management programs, visit the Diabetes Prevention and Control Program’s Self-management Education Web Site,

Choosing a physician who can help manage diabetes properly is important. To find a physician who has achieved National Committee for Quality Assurance Diabetes Physician Recognition Status go to: http://recognition.ncqa.org/PSearchResults.aspx?state=CT&rp=3 Note: NCQA does not review sites or advertisements linked into or out of the Web Site and such linking does not constitute an endorsement or sponsorship thereof by NCQA.

NCQA is not liable for any third party advertising, information, goods, services, content or for transactions you may enter into as a result thereof, off-site or stored pages, or old or expired links. You hereby waive any claim against NCQA as a result of any of the foregoing to the maximum allowed by applicable law.

Community Health Centers (CHC’s) People without insurance can contact a Community Health Center (CHC). CHCs work on a sliding fee scale. Many hospitals also have clinics that can help. To find a Diabetes Prevention Program near you, visit the Connecticut Department of Public Health’s Prediabetes Web Site,

What is diabetes also known as?

Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appetite.

What is diabetes caused by?

The role of glucose – Glucose — a sugar — is a source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.

Glucose comes from two major sources: food and the liver. Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin. The liver stores and makes glucose. When glucose levels are low, such as when you haven’t eaten in a while, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose. This keeps your glucose level within a typical range.

The exact cause of most types of diabetes is unknown. In all cases, sugar builds up in the bloodstream. This is because the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes may be caused by a combination of genetic or environmental factors. It is unclear what those factors may be.

Is diabetes a serious disease?

Diabetes a Silent But Serious Disease The statistics about diabetes are staggering. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes and nearly a quarter of them don’t realize it. And the numbers are expected to go up. Expanding waistlines and lack of exercise are to blame for the rapid increase in the number of people facing diabetes, a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar.

Your body either resists the effects of insulin – a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells – or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. Diabetes is a serious disease. Left unchecked, it can cause cardiovascular problems, nerve damage that can cause tingling in the fingers and toes, kidney damage, eye problems, and poor blood flow and nerve damage to the feet, which means that cuts and blisters can become serious infections.

Since so many people with diabetes don’t realize they have it, here are some of the symptoms to look for:

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Increase thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in the bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues, making you more thirsty than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your body’s cells, your muscles and organs are starving for energy, which triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. You may be eating more because of the intense hunger, but you lose weight since your body can’t metabolize glucose and uses stored energy in fat and muscles. Fatigue. Your cells are deprived of energy making you more tired than usual. Blurred vision. If blood sugar levels get too high, fluid is pulled from your eye lenses making it more difficult to focus. Slow-healing sores or infections. Type 2 diabetes affects how the body responds to infections and the healing process can take longer.

Diabetes is diagnosed through a series of blood tests measuring the amount of glucose in your blood. If you are diagnosed with diabetes or pre-diabetes, which means you are highly susceptible to developing diabetes, there are several steps to improve your health.

There is no cure for diabetes, but a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grain combined with exercise will help you lose weight and prevent complications from developing. Depending on your glucose numbers, your doctor may also prescribe medication or insulin therapy and ask you to monitor your blood sugar at home.

These steps will help keep your blood sugar close to the normal range, which will help protect your body from the damage caused by diabetes. If you have diabetes, your doctor will want to see you regularly to check your glucose numbers and make sure you aren’t developing related health problems.

  1. People with uncontrolled diabetes develop multiple health problems so it’s essential your medical provider is keeping a close eye on how you are doing.
  2. Lifestyle changes – such as eating better and daily exercise – can help prevent the disease from developing and diminish the effects it can have on your body.

By,a certified family nurse practitioner and associate medical director at ThedaCare Physicians-Hilbert. He can be reached at [email protected]

What is type1 and type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 vs. Type 2 diabetes: What’s the difference? – Type 2 diabetes is not the same as Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesn’t make any insulin. In Type 2, your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin, and the insulin it is making doesn’t always work as it should.

What is type 2 diabetes vs type 1?

The main difference between the type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 diabetes is a genetic condition that often shows up early in life, and type 2 is mainly lifestyle-related and develops over time. With type 1 diabetes, your immune system is attacking and destroying the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.

Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have things in common, there are lots of differences. Like what causes them, who they affect, and how you should manage them. For a start, type 1 affects 8% of everyone with diabetes. While type 2 diabetes affects about 90%. Some people get confused between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

This can mean you have to explain that what works for one type doesn’t work for the other, and that there are different causes. The main thing to remember is that both are as serious as each other. Having high blood glucose (or sugar) levels can lead to serious health complications, no matter whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Is type 1 or type 2 diabetes most common?

Healthy eating is your recipe for managing diabetes. More than 37 million Americans have diabetes (about 1 in 10), and approximately 90-95% of them have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes most often develops in people over age 45, but more and more children, teens, and young adults are also developing it.

Is diabetes an infections disease?

What is diabetes? – Diabetes is one of the four major types of noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases). It is a chronic condition that occurs when the body either does not produce enough insulin or cannot effectively use the insulin it does produce.

Is diabetes a disorder or the blood?

In this section:

What are the different types of diabetes? How common is diabetes? Who is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes? What health problems can people with diabetes develop?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy.

  • Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well.
  • Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
  • Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems,
  • Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy.

Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. Diabetes affects just about everyone, from the over 110 million Americans with or at risk for the disease to the many more people who care for them.

Is diabetes a genetic disease?

Type 2 diabetes has a stronger link to family history and lineage than type 1, and studies of twins have shown that genetics play a very strong role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Race can also play a role. Yet it also depends on environmental factors.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

Oral glucose tolerance test – The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) helps doctors detect type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes. However, the OGTT is a more expensive test than the FPG test and the glucose challenge test, and it is not as easy to give.

Before the test, you will need to fast for at least 8 hours. A health care professional will take a blood sample to measure your glucose level after fasting. Next, you will drink a liquid that is high in sugar. Another blood sample is taken 2 hours later to check your blood glucose level. If your blood glucose level is high, you may have diabetes.

If you are pregnant, your blood will be drawn every hour for 2 to 3 hours. If your blood glucose levels are high two or more times during the OGTT, you may have gestational diabetes.

Does too much sugar cause diabetes?

Does sugar cause diabetes? – There are two main types of diabetes – type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We know that sugar does not cause type 1 diabetes, nor is it caused by anything else in your lifestyle. In type 1 diabetes, the insulin producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed by your immune system.

  1. With type 2 diabetes, the answer is a little more complex.
  2. Though we know sugar doesn’t directly cause type 2 diabetes, you are more likely to get it if you are overweight.
  3. You gain weight when you take in more calories than your body needs, and sugary foods and drinks contain a lot of calories.
  4. So you can see if too much sugar is making you put on weight, then you are increasing your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
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But type 2 diabetes is complex, and sugar is unlikely to be the only reason the condition develops. We also know that sugar sweetened drinks, like canned soft drinks, are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and this is not necessarily linked to their effect on body weight.

How long can a diabetic live?

Life expectancy can be increased by 3 years or in some cases as much as 10 years. At age 50, life expectancy- the number of years a person is expected to live- is 6 years shorter for people with type 2 diabetes than for people without it. People with type 2 diabetes can reduce their risk of complications and live longer by achieving their treatment goals.

Can I live a normal life with diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes can have serious health implications that can affect life expectancy. However, with management, many people with diabetes can live long lives. When a person gets a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, they may wonder how it will affect the length of their life.

  1. The impact on life expectancy depends on various factors, such as how soon a person receives a diagnosis and treatment, and how well they and their healthcare team manage the condition.
  2. Other influential factors include symptom severity and progression, the appearance of complications, and the body’s response to treatment.

This article will examine the factors that influence life expectancy with type 2 diabetes and how to maximize it.

Is diabetes long life?

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high. There are 2 main types of diabetes:

type 1 diabetes – where the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin type 2 diabetes – where the body does not produce enough insulin, or the body’s cells do not react to insulin

Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2. During pregnancy, some women have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable to produce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is known as gestational diabetes,

Is diabetes considered autoimmune?

Abstract. – Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by the autoimmune response against pancreatic β cells. T1D is often complicated with other autoimmune diseases, and anti-islet autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of disease. The most common coexisting organ-specific autoimmune disease in patients with T1D is autoimmune thyroid disease, and its frequency is estimated at > 90% among patients with T1D and autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in children with T1D at disease onset is about 20% and is particularly common in girls. Furthermore, patients with anti-thyroid antibodies are 18 times more likely to develop thyroid disease than patients without anti-thyroid antibodies. Therefore, for early detection of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with T1D, measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 yr is recommended. Anti-islet autoantibodies are predictive and diagnostic markers for T1D. The most frequently detected autoantibodies in Japanese patients are GAD autoantibodies (~80%) followed by IA-2 autoantibodies (~60%), insulin autoantibodies (~55%) and ZnT8 autoantibodies (~50%). In a combined analysis, 94% of Japanese patients with T1D can be defined as having type 1A diabetes. Furthermore, autoantibodies to ZnT8 and IA-2 are associated with childhood-onset and acute-onset patients. Thus, it is important to develop a diagnostic strategy for patients with type 1A diabetes in consideration of the age or mode of disease onset. Keywords: anti-islet autoantibodies, autoimmune thyroid disease, prediction, type 1 diabetes, Zinc transporter 8

Is diabetes a genetic disease?

Type 2 diabetes has a stronger link to family history and lineage than type 1, and studies of twins have shown that genetics play a very strong role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Race can also play a role. Yet it also depends on environmental factors.

Is type 2 diabetes a common disease?

Healthy eating is your recipe for managing diabetes. More than 37 million Americans have diabetes (about 1 in 10), and approximately 90-95% of them have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes most often develops in people over age 45, but more and more children, teens, and young adults are also developing it.

Which disease classification is type two diabetes?

Type 2 Diabetes – Type 2 diabetes, previously referred to as “noninsulin-dependent diabetes” or “adult-onset diabetes,” accounts for 90–95% of all diabetes. This form encompasses individuals who have relative (rather than absolute) insulin deficiency and have peripheral insulin resistance.

  • At least initially, and often throughout their lifetime, these individuals may not need insulin treatment to survive.
  • There are various causes of type 2 diabetes.
  • Although the specific etiologies are not known, autoimmune destruction of β-cells does not occur, and patients do not have any of the other known causes of diabetes.

Most, but not all, patients with type 2 diabetes have overweight or obesity. Excess weight itself causes some degree of insulin resistance. Patients who do not have obesity or overweight by traditional weight criteria may have an increased percentage of body fat distributed predominantly in the abdominal region.

DKA seldom occurs spontaneously in type 2 diabetes; when seen, it usually arises in association with the stress of another illness such as infection, myocardial infarction, or with the use of certain drugs (e.g., corticosteroids, atypical antipsychotics, and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors) (88,89).

Type 2 diabetes frequently goes undiagnosed for many years because hyperglycemia develops gradually and, at earlier stages, is often not severe enough for the patient to notice the classic diabetes symptoms caused by hyperglycemia, such as dehydration or unintentional weight loss.

  • Nevertheless, even undiagnosed patients are at increased risk of developing macrovascular and microvascular complications.
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes may have insulin levels that appear normal or elevated, yet the failure to normalize blood glucose reflects a relative defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

Thus, insulin secretion is defective in these patients and insufficient to compensate for insulin resistance. Insulin resistance may improve with weight reduction, exercise, and/or pharmacologic treatment of hyperglycemia but is seldom restored to normal.

  1. Recent interventions with intensive diet and exercise or surgical weight loss have led to diabetes remission (90–96) (see Section 8, “Obesity and Weight Management for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes,” https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-S008 ).
  2. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity, and lack of physical activity (97,98).

It occurs more frequently in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or polycystic ovary syndrome. It is also more common in people with hypertension or dyslipidemia and in certain racial/ethnic subgroups (African American, Native American, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian American).