What is type 1 diabetes? A Mayo Clinic expert explains – Learn more about type 1 diabetes from endocrinologist Yogish Kudva, M.B.B.S. I’m Dr. Yogish C. Kudva an endocrinologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of type 1 diabetes. What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
Whether you’re looking for answers for yourself or someone you love. We are here to give you the best information available. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the insulin making cells of the pancreas. It’s estimated that about 1.25 million Americans live with it. People with type 1 diabetes don’t make enough insulin.
An important hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin allows your cells to store sugar or glucose and fat and produce energy. Unfortunately, there is no known cure. But treatment can prevent complications and also improve everyday life for patients with type 1 diabetes.
- Lots of people with type 1 diabetes live a full life.
- And the more we learn and develop treatment for the disorder, the better the outcome.
- We don’t know what exactly causes type 1 diabetes.
- We believe that it is an auto-immune disorder where the body mistakenly destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas.
Typically, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin circulates, letting sugar enter your cells. This sugar or glucose, is the main source of energy for cells in the brain, muscle cells, and other tissues. However, once most insulin producing cells are destroyed, the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin, meaning the glucose can’t enter the cells, resulting in an excess of blood sugar floating in the bloodstream.
- This can cause life-threatening complications.
- And this condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis.
- Although we don’t know what causes it, we do know certain factors can contribute to the onset of type 1 diabetes.
- Family history.
- Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing it.
Genetics. The presence of certain genes can also indicate an increased risk. Geography. Type 1 diabetes becomes more common as you travel away from the equator. Age, although it can occur at any age there are two noticeable peaks. The first occurs in children between four and seven years of age and the second is between 10 and 14 years old.
- Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can appear rather suddenly, especially in children.
- They may include increased thirst, frequent urination, bed wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed.
- Extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, fatigue and weakness, blurred vision, irritability, and other mood changes.
If you or your child are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should talk to your doctor. The best way to determine if you have type 1 diabetes is a blood test. There are different methods such as an A1C test, a random blood sugar test, or a fasting blood sugar test.
They are all effective and your doctor can help determine what’s appropriate for you. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may order additional tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes in the test called C-peptide, which measures the amount of insulin produced when checked simultaneously with a fasting glucose.
These tests can help distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when a diagnosis is uncertain. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering what treatment looks like. It could mean taking insulin, counting carbohydrates, fat protein, and monitoring your glucose frequently, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight.
- Generally, those with type 1 diabetes will need lifelong insulin therapy.
- There are many different types of insulin and more are being developed that are more efficient.
- And what you may take may change.
- Again, your doctor will help you navigate what’s right for you.
- A significant advance in treatment from the last several years has been the development and availability of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pumps that automatically adjust insulin working with the continuous glucose monitor.
This type of treatment is the best treatment at this time for type 1 diabetes. This is an exciting time for patients and for physicians that are keen to develop, prescribe such therapies. Surgery is another option. A successful pancreas transplant can erase the need for additional insulin.
- However, transplants aren’t always available, not successful and the procedure can pose serious risks.
- Sometimes it may outweigh the dangers of diabetes itself.
- So transplants are often reserved for those with very difficult to manage conditions.
- A successful transplant can bring life transforming results.
However, surgery is always a serious endeavor and requires ample research and concentration from you, your family, and your medical team. The fact that we don’t know what causes type 1 diabetes can be alarming. The fact that we don’t have a cure for it even more so.
- But with the right doctor, medical team and treatment, type 1 diabetes can be managed.
- So those who live with it can get on living.
- If you would like to learn even more about type 1 diabetes, watch our other related videos or visit mayoclinic.org.
- We wish you well.
- Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose).
Glucose is an important source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and tissues. It’s also the brain’s main source of fuel. The main cause of diabetes varies by type. But no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in the blood.
- Too much sugar in the blood can lead to serious health problems.
- Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
- Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes.
- Prediabetes happens when blood sugar levels are higher than normal.
- But the blood sugar levels aren’t high enough to be called diabetes.
And prediabetes can lead to diabetes unless steps are taken to prevent it. Gestational diabetes happens during pregnancy. But it may go away after the baby is born.
What do you mean by diabetic mellitus?
Listen to pronunciation. (dy-uh-BEE-teez MEH-lih-tus) A disease in which the body does not control the amount of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood and the kidneys make a large amount of urine. This disease occurs when the body does not make enough insulin or does not use it the way it should.
Is diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2?
Type 2 Diabetes – With type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t use insulin well and can’t keep blood sugar at normal levels. About 90-95% of people with diabetes have type 2. It develops over many years and is usually diagnosed in adults (but more and more in children, teens, and young adults).
Losing weight. Eating healthy food. Being active.
What causes diabetes mellitus?
Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity – You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or have obesity, Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes.
Is diabetes mellitus serious?
Can diabetes kill you? – Yes, it’s possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and unmanaged (severely high or severely low glucose levels) it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma.
- These complications can lead to your death.
- Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.
- Although having diabetes may not necessarily increase your risk of contracting COVID-19, if you do get the virus, you are more likely to have more severe complications.
If you contract COVID-19, your blood sugars are likely to increase as your body is working to clear the infection. If you contract COVID-19, contact your healthcare team early to let them know.
Is type 2 diabetes called mellitus?
What Is It? – Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That’s because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood.
However, more and more children and teens are developing this condition. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and is really a different disease. But it shares with type 1 diabetes high blood sugar levels, and the complications of high blood sugar. During digestion, food is broken down into basic components.
Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, primarily glucose. Glucose is a critically important source of energy for the body’s cells. To provide energy to the cells, glucose needs to leave the blood and get inside the cells. Insulin traveling in the blood signals the cells to take up glucose.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ in the abdomen. When levels of glucose in the blood rise (for example, after a meal), the pancreas produces more insulin. Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body’s cells resist the normal effect of insulin, which is to drive glucose in the blood into the inside of the cells.
This condition is called insulin resistance. As a result, glucose starts to build up in the blood. In people with insulin resistance, the pancreas “sees” the blood glucose level rising. The pancreas responds by making extra insulin to maintain a normal blood sugar.
Is diabetes mellitus caused by insulin?
Insulin, Blood Sugar, and Type 2 Diabetes – Insulin is a key player in developing type 2 diabetes. This vital hormone—you can’t survive without it—regulates blood sugar (glucose) in the body, a very complicated process. Here are the high points:
The food you eat is broken down into blood sugar. Blood sugar enters your bloodstream, which signals the pancreas to release insulin. Insulin helps blood sugar enter the body’s cells so it can be used for energy. Insulin also signals the liver to store blood sugar for later use. Blood sugar enters cells, and levels in the bloodstream decrease, signaling insulin to decrease too. Lower insulin levels alert the liver to release stored blood sugar so energy is always available, even if you haven’t eaten for a while.
That’s when everything works smoothly. But this finely tuned system can quickly get out of whack, as follows:
A lot of blood sugar enters the bloodstream. The pancreas pumps out more insulin to get blood sugar into cells. Over time, cells stop responding to all that insulin—they’ve become insulin resistant. The pancreas keeps making more insulin to try to make cells respond. Eventually, the pancreas can’t keep up, and blood sugar keeps rising.
Lots of blood sugar in the bloodstream is very damaging to the body and needs to be moved into cells as soon as possible. There’s lots of insulin, too, telling the liver and muscles to store blood sugar. When they’re full, the liver sends the excess blood sugar to fat cells to be stored as body fat. Yep, weight gain. And what’s more serious, the stage is set for and,
What is another name for diabetes mellitus?
What Is Diabetes Mellitus? – Diabetes mellitus, also called diabetes, is a term for several conditions involving how your body turns food into energy. When you eat a carbohydrate, your body turns it into a sugar called glucose and sends that to your bloodstream.
Your pancreas releases insulin, a hormone that helps move glucose from your blood into your cells, which use it for energy. When you have diabetes and don’t get treatment, your body doesn’t use insulin like it should. Too much glucose stays in your blood, a condition usually called high blood sugar, This can cause health problems that may be serious or even life-threatening.
There’s no cure for diabetes. But with treatment and lifestyle changes, you can live a long, healthy life. Diabetes comes in different forms, depending on the cause.
Does mellitus mean honey?
Mellitus – Mellitus means, “pleasant tasting, like honey.” Ancient Chinese and Japanese physicians noticed dogs were particularly drawn to some people’s urine. When the urine was examined they found the urine had a sweet taste. What made the urine sweet were high levels of glucose, or sugar.That is how this discovery of sweet urine became part of the name, diabetes mellitus.
Is diabetes mellitus same as type 1 diabetes?
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), also known as type 1 diabetes, usually starts before 15 years of age, but can occur in adults also. Diabetes involves the pancreas gland, which is located behind the stomach ( Picture 1 ). The special cells (beta cells) of the pancreas produce a hormone called insulin. The body is made up of millions of cells. All cells need glucose (sugar) from the food we eat for energy. Just as a car can’t run without gasoline, the body can’t work without glucose. Insulin is the “key” that allows glucose to enter the cells. Without this key, glucose stays in the bloodstream and the cells can’t use it for energy.
How long can you live with diabetes mellitus?
Life expectancy can be increased by 3 years or in some cases as much as 10 years. At age 50, life expectancy- the number of years a person is expected to live- is 6 years shorter for people with type 2 diabetes than for people without it. People with type 2 diabetes can reduce their risk of complications and live longer by achieving their treatment goals.
What happens if you don’t treat diabetes mellitus?
Costs and Consequences is a blog series examining the health care burden of not treating diseases. Too often, the rhetoric focuses solely on the cost of medicines and disregards the adverse societal and economic impacts of not treating diseases. Stay tuned for the next post in the series and be sure to share your thoughts in the comments section below.
- Diabetes is a leading cause of death in the United States and its prevalence is rising at an alarming rate.
- Every 30 seconds a new diabetes case is diagnosed, with almost 2 million Americans newly diagnosed each year.
- Currently, more than 29 million people – one in 10 American adults – have diabetes.
- If trends continue as many as one–in-three Americans could face the disease by 2050.
Diabetes is a complex, chronic condition that requires consistent medical care and treatment to help control blood sugar levels. If left untreated, diabetes can lead to devastating complications, such as heart disease, nerve damage, blindness, kidney failure and amputations.
- And the risk of death for adults with diabetes is 50 percent higher than for adults without diabetes.
- The cost of not treating diabetes is detrimental to the patient, and also to society.
- According to the American Diabetes Association’s report, Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S.
- In 2012, the total estimated cost of diabetes in 2012 was $245 billion – a 41 percent increase since 2007.
This includes $176 billion in direct medical costs and $69 billion in reduced productivity, such as increased absenteeism, reduced productivity while at work and lost productivity due to early mortality. And people with diabetes, on average, have medical costs twice as high as for people without diabetes. These costs are unsustainable and underscore the need to control diabetes with a proper treatment plan, including diet, exercise and medications. Adherence to treatment is especially critical as improved adherence to diabetes medications could result in over 1 million fewer emergency room visits and save $8.3 billion annually.
What are the 3 signs of diabetes mellitus?
If you think that you have diabetes, visit your doctor immediately for a definite diagnosis. Common symptoms include the following:
Frequent urination Excessive thirst Unexplained weight loss Extreme hunger Sudden vision changes Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet Feeling very tired much of the time Very dry skin Sores that are slow to heal More infections than usual
Some people may experience only a few symptoms that are listed above. About 50 percent of people with type 2 diabetes don’t experience any symptoms and don’t know they have the disease.