Summary – This journey may seem daunting, but just remember, slow and steady wins the race. Develop good, healthy habits with diet and exercise, focus on optimal blood sugar control, and stick to your calorie goal – the rest will all fall into place. To lose weight with type 1 diabetes:
- Set realistic goals
- Calculate your daily calorie need and create a calorie deficit
- Consume enough protein and split remaining calories between carbs and fat
- Perform a combination of resistance and cardiovascular training
- Don’t be afraid of insulin. It doesn’t cause weight gain
- Strive to maintain good glycemic levels and have a plan for dealing with lows without over-eating
- Be patient! Healthy and sustainable weight loss takes time
You got this! Suggested next posts:
- Diabetes and Polyphagia (Excessive Hunger)
- How to Stop Binge-Eating During Low Blood Sugars
If you found this guide to diabetes and polyphagia useful, please sign up for our newsletter (and get a free chapter from the Fit With Diabetes eBook ) using the form below. We send out a weekly newsletter with the latest posts and recipes from Diabetes Strong.
Why is it hard for Type 1 diabetics to lose weight?
Almost three-quarters of adults 20 years or older in the United States are overweight, with 42.5% of adults meeting the C.D.C.’s definition for obese.1 For people with type 1 diabetes, the incidence may be even higher according to studies over the past ten years, partially due to the increase in weight gain when on intensive insulin therapy.2 Increased weight adds additional challenges for people with type 1 diabetes, including insulin resistance and increased risk for complications.
One of the biggest barriers to losing weight for people with diabetes is fear of hypoglycemia that goes along with exercise, weight loss and dietary changes.3 Losing weight with type 1 diabetes can be really challenging, but there are a lot of new tools available to help make it easier. In this article, we’ll summarize what the latest science says about T1D and weight loss.
Exercise and Diabetes Sometimes it feels really defeating to start a new exercise routine with diabetes because you often have to eat food to prevent the lows associated with exercise, especially with aerobic exercise.3 When your goal is to increase the calories burned and decrease the calories taken in, eating in order to exercise seems maddening.
Lower insulin before exercise – if you plan ahead, you can lower your basal 60 to 90 minutes ahead of time or set a higher target BG in your hybrid-closed loop system (e.g., in Tandem, there is “exercise mode”). You can also time your exercise to be after a meal and take 25 to 75% less insulin for that meal.3 Lower insulin overnight after exercise – it’s also common to have delayed hypo’s overnight after intense aerobic exercise, so lowering the basal or setting a higher target overnight can help prevent these lows. Time the exercise well – limiting the amount of active insulin before starting exercise, exercising in the morning when we are most insulin resistant, and doing anaerobic exercise before aerobic can all help reduce the risk of lows. Keep notes on what works for you – as you probably know, everyone’s diabetes is different, so figuring out what works best for you or your child is the best way to create the exercise routine that works for you. And always keep fast-acting carbs on hand, just in case.
Continuous Glucose Monitors Having a CGM can not only help reduce the amount of hypoglycemia someone experiences, but also helps reduce the fear associated with lows. Being able to personalize alerts and alarms, having access to data sharing features, and using systems that automatically suspend or reduce insulin can really help when working towards a goal of weight loss.3 However, sometimes using hybrid closed-loop systems can result in weight gain.
This does not mean that the system is not beneficial for increasing time in range and reducing lows, though. Additionally, wearing a CGM can help show people with diabetes in real-time how different foods affect their blood sugars. For example, when eating larger meals or meals with higher carbohydrate or fat content, the rise on the CGM will correlate with what was consumed.
For meals high in fast-acting carbohydrates, such as white rice or breakfast cereals, you will likely see a large post-meal spike unless you time the insulin perfectly and count the carbs perfectly (good luck!). This can be motivation to eat meals that are more balanced nutritionally with higher fiber or protein, which can help with weight loss.
Nutrition for Weight Loss There are many suggestions about what the “best” nutrition is, and there are many resources for people with and without diabetes. Talking to a dietitian or diabetes educator who has knowledge about diabetes and healthy eating is probably the best way to create a plan that is right for you and your family.
The overall goal with nutrition for weight loss is reducing the energy intake and increasing glycemic index in foods to help maintain satiety (fullness).2,4 Eating regular, well-balanced meals and avoiding skipping meals helps reduce the risk of weight gain for people with T1D.4 Many people swear by low carb diets, but such diets are not always right for everyone.
As with most things, everything has its own benefits and challenges. Dietitian and Diabetes Educator Constance Brown-Riggs has a recorded session on carbohydrate controversies, which can help give insight into lower carb diets as well. Medications for Weight Loss Given that many people living in the U.S.
are overweight or obese, the market for medications to help people lose weight has been growing steadily over the last decade. There are two newer medication classes that have been helpful for reducing blood glucose levels as well as promoting weight loss: GLP-1 Agonists and SGLT-2 Inhibitors,4 They were developed for people with type 2 diabetes and are typically considered “off-label” when used by people with type 1 diabetes, especially youth with type 1 diabetes.
- These medications also reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications, and SGLT-2 inhibitors are protective of the kidneys as well.
- Metformin has been used for many years by people with type 1 diabetes who have challenges with insulin resistance, and can help with weight loss in the way of reducing the amount of insulin needed.2 Pramlintide, which is a synthetic hormone that has similar effects of the GLP-1 agonists, can also help.
The challenge with this medication is it has to be injected before each meal, making it less likely that people will continue using it. There are other anti-obesity medications that have not been studied in people with type 1 diabetes, but some health care teams may recommend them depending on your circumstances.
Overall Recommendations The common theme for these recommendations is that people with diabetes need individualized education and support to help meet their weight-loss needs. Additionally, there can be many other factors that contribute to increased weight such as depression, anxiety, other metabolic conditions, thyroid imbalances, genetic factors, and social determinants of health (SDOH),
Figuring out what works best for you may take some time and will definitely require motivated efforts. There are many resources available online and through your healthcare team. There also could be groups in your community that could help you with sustaining exercise routines.
Making SMART goals can help ensure your goals are achievable and sustainable. Losing weight should not be about wanting to “look better,” and all these recommendations are not just to help with losing weight, but to help improve health and reduce risks. There are times where your healthcare team may tell you that losing weight is important for your health, in which case, hopefully these tips will come in handy.
Otherwise, they’re tips that can help you stay and feel healthier.
National Center for Health Statistics: Obesity and Overweight Weight Management in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Obesity Weight Management in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes and Obesity: Challenges and Possible Solutions Biopsychosocial Aspects of Weight Management in Type 1 Diabetes: a Review and Next Steps
Written and clinically reviewed by Marissa Town, RN, BSN, CDCES
Is there a link between type 1 diabetes and hypothyroidism?
INTRODUCTION – Diabetes is a complex, chronic illness requiring continuous medical care with multifactorial risk-reduction strategies beyond glycemic control. Ongoing patient self-management education and support are critical to preventing acute complications and reducing the risk of long-term complications (1). Type 1 diabetes accounts 5–10% of diabetes and is due to cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic b-cells but threequarters of all cases of type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in individuals < 18 years of age. It is defined by one or more autoimmune markers, including islet cell autoantibodies and autoantibodies to insulin, GAD (GAD65), the tyrosine phosphatases IA-2 and IA-2b, and ZnT8. The disease has strong HLA associations, with linkage to the DQA and DQB genes. These HLA-DR/DQ alleles can be either predisposing or protective (2). The rate of â-cell destruction is quite variable, being rapid in some individuals (mainly infants and children) and slow in others (mainly adults). Autoimmune destruction of â-cells has multiple genetic predispositions and is also related to environmental factors that are still poorly defined. Although patients are not typically obese when they present with type 1 diabetes, obesity should not preclude the diagnosis (3). These patients are also prone to other autoimmune disorders such as Hashimoto thyroiditis, celiac disease, Graves disease, Addison disease, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, and pernicious anemia (2). Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common autoimmune disorder associated with diabetes, occurring in 17–30% of patients with type 1 diabetes (4). At the time of diagnosis, about 25% of children with type 1 diabetes have thyroid autoantibodies (5). Their presence is predictive of thyroid dysfunction and most commonly hypothyroidism, although hyperthyroidism occurs in 0.5% of cases (6). Thyroid function tests may be misleading (euthyroid sick syndrome) if performed at time of diagnosis owing to the effect of previous hyperglycemia, ketosis or ketoacidosis, weight loss, etc. Therefore, thyroid function tests should be performed soon after a period of metabolic stability and good glycemic control. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with increased risk of symptomatic hypoglycemia (7) and reduced linear growth rate. Hyperthyroidism alters glucose metabolism and usually causes deterioration of metabolic control. Different factors have been associated with the development of thyroid autoimmunity in the general population, such as heredity, increasing age, female gender, puberty, oestrogen use, pregnancy and an iodine-rich diet (8-10). In adults with T1DM, female gender, increasing age, and the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD) have been associated with the development of thyroid autoimmunity (11). Also in children and adolescents with T1DM, previous studies agree on the age and gender effect (12-16), while there are very limited studies on the significance of the persistence of anti-GAD (11), the age at diabetes diagnosis (12,14), and diabetes duration (14,16,17) on the development of thyroid antibody positivity. The aims of this study were to identify in Romanian children and adolescents admitted in the "MS Curie" Emergency Children's Hospital from Bucharest, the prevalence of thyroid antibody positivity and to determine the effect of potential risk factors, such as current age, age at onset of diabetes, duration of diabetes on its development and also the influence on glycemic control of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Does hypothyroidism make diabetes worse?
BACKGROUND Hypothyroidism causes many metabolic abnormalities as well as multiple clinical symptoms. Some studies suggest that blood sugar may be affected in hypothyroidism and levels may increase. Indeed, it has been noted that patients with diabetes who also have hypothyroidism may have higher levels of Hemoglobin A1C (HBA1C).
This test is done to diagnose and monitor control of blood sugar by patients with diabetes. An elevated HBA1C usually indicates worse control of diabetes. This study was done to look at the effect of thyroid hormone treatment on HBA1c levels in patients with hypothyroidism. This study was also done to look at the effect thyroid hormone treatment has on the diagnoses of pre diabetes and the control of diabetes after treatment.
THE FULL ARTICLE TITLE: Anantarapu S et al Effects of thyroid hormone replacement on glycated he n non-diabetic subjects with overt hypothyroidism. Arch Endocrinol Metab. September 25 2015, SUMMARY OF THE STUDY This study was done at a large hospital in India.
- Patients who were newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism were studied.
- They were at least 20 years old.
- Blood tests were done before starting the thyroid hormone and 3 months after the tests showed normal thyroid hormone levels.
- An HBA1C test and an oral glucose tolerance test were done on all patients.
- The results showed a significant drop in the HBA1c levels for patients diagnosed as having pre diabetes (HBA1C between 5.7 to 6.5 %) and diabetes (HBA1C above 6.5%) after starting thyroid hormone therapy.
There was no change in the number of patients with elevated fasting glucose levels or impaired glucose tolerance after treatment with thyroid hormone. The body weight did not change to a great extent.
Which food is good for diabetes and thyroid?
05 /8 Berries – Being rich in antioxidants, berries are excellent for your thyroid organs. They help to stimulate the production of the thyroid hormones and keep them functioning smoothly. Berries also contain vitamins and minerals that protect us against the oxidative damage caused by the free radicals.
Can Type 1 diabetics take weight loss pills?
Diet pills are never safe to use. There are so many other ways to achieve weight loss success. You do not have to rely on diet pills if you commit to working out regularly. You also need to be following a healthy diabetic diet to keep your blood sugars in line. Achieving weight loss takes time. You need to develop habits that over time help you achieve your goals. Diet pills may be an appropriate treatment option, but I would suggest that you consult your physician or endocrinologist first. You may be taking other medications that could counteract the diet pills and this could cause harm. If you would like to lose weight, I would suggest seeking out a registered dietitian in your area at eatright.org. Diet pills are not recommended as a safe way to lose weight for anyone including people with diabetes. The ingredients in diet pills vary and some of the ingredients can have a negative effect on blood sugar levels. Some diet pills contain a large dose of caffeine which has been shown to raise blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 diabetes.
do not skip meals-eat three meals/day; add more low carbohydrate containing vegetables to your meals; stay away from sugar sweetened beverages due to their higher calorie and lower nutrition content; watch your portion sizes of foods-use a 9 inch plate;increase your physical activity with doing things you enjoy like dancing or taking your kids or dog for a walk.
Diet pills and supplements are generally not recommended for patients who have diabetes. You should discuss your desire for weight control with your physician to determine an optimal regimen for you that does not interfere with your diabetes treatment.
How can Type 1 diabetics lose belly fat?
Eggs Make for a Filling and Healthy Breakfast That Fights Belly Fat – “A diet with adequate protein is beneficial for reducing belly fat,” says Norwood. “Studies have shown that people who eat more protein have less belly fat.” Protein is an important nutrient for satiety, and a January 2012 study in Nutrition & Metabolism shows that eating high-quality protein, like the type found in eggs, is linked with lower belly fat.
- Eating enough protein while following a lower-carbohydrate diet can be an effective way to feel full, control blood sugar, improve insulin sensitivity, and ultimately, reduce or prevent belly fat,” Norwood says.
- RELATED: Are Eggs Safe for People With Diabetes to Eat? But don’t eat just protein: Meals should contain a combination of protein, fat, and high-fiber carbohydrates, says Zanini, who suggests an example meal of two scrambled eggs with sautéed asparagus and mushrooms paired with ¼ avocado, sliced, and 1 cup berries,
Also important to note is that, while beneficial, eating too much protein can contribute to weight gain and affect glucose control, according to a review published in November 2014 in Nutrition & Metabolism, Therefore, be sure to consult your registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator to figure out how much protein to factor into your overall daily calorie count.
Why are some Type 1 diabetics fat?
Abstract – Although type 1 diabetes is traditionally considered a disease of lean people, overweight and obesity are becoming increasingly more common in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Non-physiological insulin replacement that causes peripheral hyperinsulinaemia, insulin profiles that do not match basal and mealtime insulin needs, defensive snacking to avoid hypoglycaemia, or a combination of these, are believed to affect body composition and drive excessive accumulation of body fat in people with type 1 diabetes.
- The consequences of overweight or obesity in people with type 1 diabetes are of particular concern, as they increase the risk of both diabetes-related and obesity-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and various types of cancer.
- In this Review, we summarise the current understanding of the aetiology and consequences of excessive bodyweight in people with type 1 diabetes and highlight the need to optimise future prevention and treatment strategies in this population.
Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Does levothyroxine affect insulin?
Levothyroxine enhances glucose clearance and blunts the onset of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus in mice – PubMed Display options Format Abstract PubMed PMID Background and purpose: Thyroid hormones induce several changes in whole body metabolism that are known to improve metabolic homeostasis. However, adverse side effects have prevented its use in the clinic. In view of the promising effects of thyroid hormones, we investigated the effects of levothyroxine supplementation on glucose homeostasis. Experimental approach: C57BL/6 mice were treated with levothyroxine from birth to 24 weeks of age, when mice were killed. The effects of levothyroxine supplementation on metabolic health were determined. C57BL/6 mice treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and then challenged with streptozotocin to monitor survival. Mechanistic experiments were conducted in the pancreas, liver and skeletal muscle. RIP-B7.1 mice were treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and were subsequently immunized to trigger experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD). Metabolic tests were performed. Mice were killed and metabolic tissues were extracted for immunohistological analyses. Key results: Long-term levothyroxine supplementation enhanced glucose clearance and reduced circulating glucose in C57BL/6 mice. Levothyroxine increased simultaneously the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells, promoting the maintenance of a highly insulin-expressing beta cell population. Levothyroxine increased circulating insulin levels, inducing sustained activation of IRS1-AKT signalling in insulin-target tissues. Levothyroxine-treated C57BL/6 mice challenged with streptozotocin exhibited extended survival. Levothyroxine blunted the onset of EAD in RIP-B7.1 mice by inducing beta cell proliferation and preservation of insulin-expressing cells. Conclusions and implications: Interventions based on the use of thyroid hormones or thyromimetics could be explored to provide therapeutic benefit in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society. Figure 1 T4 enhances glucose clearance in Figure 1 T4 enhances glucose clearance in wild‐type C57BL/6 mice. (A) Glucose concentration in blood Figure 1 T4 enhances glucose clearance in wild‐type C57BL/6 mice. (A) Glucose concentration in blood after oral glucose load (OGTT). Age = 10 weeks. n = 13 per group. (B) AUC of glucose levels during the OGTT. (C) Plasma levels of insulin after oral glucose load (OGTT). Age = 9 weeks. n = 7 untreated; n = 8 T4‐treated. (D) AUC of insulin levels during OGTT curve. (E) Glucose concentration in blood after intraperitoneal pyruvate load (IPPTT). Age = 8 weeks. n = 7 untreated; n = 8 T4‐treated. (F) AUC of glucose levels during the IPPTT. (G) Glucose concentration in blood after i.p. insulin injection (ITT). Age = 11 weeks. n = 12 untreated; n = 13 T4‐treated. (H) AUC of glucose levels during the ITT. (I) Glucose concentration in blood during a 24 h fasting period. Age = 12 weeks. n = 7 untreated; n = 8 T4‐treated. (J) AUC of glucose levels during the 24 h fasting period. (K) Sixteen‐hour fasting circulating insulin levels. Age = 12 weeks. n = 7 untreated; n = 8 T4‐treated. (L) Percentage of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in blood. Age = 23 weeks. n = 9 untreated; n = 14 T4‐treated. UT, untreated; T4, T4‐treated. Data shown are the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05, significantly different from untreated mice; two tailed Student's t ‐test. Figure 2 T4 reduces body weight and Figure 2 T4 reduces body weight and increases rotarod performance. (A) Body weight. Age = Figure 2 T4 reduces body weight and increases rotarod performance. (A) Body weight. Age = 24 weeks. n = 12 untreated; n = 18 T4‐treated. (B) Time to fall from an accelerating rotarod. Age = 21 weeks. n = 12 untreated; n = 18 T4‐treated. (C) Energy intake. Age = 8 weeks. n = 7 untreated; n = 8 T4‐treated. (D) Organs weight. Age = 24 weeks. For liver, heart, WAT, BAT, kidney, brain and spleen n = 12 untreated; n = 18 T4‐treated. For thyroid and pituitary n = 6 untreated; n = 7 T4‐treated. (E) Organs weight divided by body weight. Age = 24 weeks. For liver, heart, WAT, BAT, kidney, brain and spleen n = 12 untreated; n = 18 T4‐treated. For thyroid and pituitary n = 6 untreated; n = 7. UT, untreated; T4, T4‐treated. Data shown are the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05, significantly different from untreated mice; two tailed Student's t ‐test. Figure 3 T4 increases insulin expression and Figure 3 T4 increases insulin expression and enhances the proliferation of pancreatic beta cells. (A) Figure 3 T4 increases insulin expression and enhances the proliferation of pancreatic beta cells. (A) Representative images of insulin (INS), glucagon (GLC) and glucokinase (GK) staining in pancreas from mice treated or not with T4. Diaminobenzidine staining followed by haematoxylin counterstaining. Scale bar = 50 μm. INS; n = 5 per group. GLC; n = 5 per group. GK; n = 6 per group. (B) Quantification of insulin staining (mean intensity). (C) Quantification of glucagon staining (mean intensity). (D) Determination of pancreatic islet insulin content by elisa, n = 6 untreated, n = 7 T4‐treated. (E) Quantification of glucokinase staining (mean intensity). (F) Determination of GSIS. n = 6 untreated, n = 7 T4‐treated. (G) Representative images of Ki67 and insulin staining in pancreases from mice treated or not with T4. Immunofluorescence followed by DAPI staining. Scale bar, 50 μm. n = 5 per group. (H) Percentage of Ki67 + ‐Insulin + cells over total insulin + cells. (I) Percentage of Ki67 + ‐Insulin − cells over total insulin − cells residing in pancreatic islets. (J) Representative images of TUNEL and insulin staining in pancreas from mice treated or not with T4. Immunofluorescence followed by DAPI staining. Scale bar = 50 μm. n = 5 per group. (K) Percentage of TUNEL + ‐Insulin + cells over total insulin + cells. (L) Percentage of TUNEL + ‐Insulin − cells over total insulin − cells residing in pancreatic islets. UT, untreated; T4, T4‐treated. Arrows indicate representative positive staining. Data shown are the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05 significantly different from untreated mice; two tailed Student's t ‐test. Figure 4 T4 activates insulin signalling in Figure 4 T4 activates insulin signalling in skeletal muscle and liver. (A) Determination of mRNA Figure 4 T4 activates insulin signalling in skeletal muscle and liver. (A) Determination of mRNA levels of several members of the insulin pathway in the skeletal muscle of mice treated or not with T4. Mice were fasted for 16 h before they were killed. Values were normalized to untreated mice. IR‐β; n = 5. IRS1; n = 6, Akt; n = 5, FOXO1; n = 6, GSK3‐β; n = 6, ERK; n = 6, (B) Determination of mRNA levels of several members of the insulin pathway in the liver of mice treated or not with T4. Mice were fasted for 16 h before they were killed. Values were normalized to untreated mice. IR‐β; n = 6 untreated, n = 5 T4‐treated. IRS1; n = 6 untreated, n = 5 T4‐treated. AKT; n = 6, FOXO1; n = 6 untreated, n = 5 T4‐treated. GSK3‐β; n = 5, ERK; n = 6 untreated, n = 5 T4‐treated. (C) Western blots indicating activation of insulin signalling in the skeletal muscle and the liver of T4‐treated mice. Mice were fasted for 16 h before they were killed. n = 5 per group. (D) Densitometric analysis of the Western blots using skeletal muscle extracts shown in panel C. Values were normalized to untreated mice. (E) Densitometric analysis of the Western blots using liver extracts shown in panel C. Values were normalized to untreated mice. (F) Representative images of Western blots showing the maximal activation of insulin signalling in T4‐treated and untreated mice challenged with an insulin injection (0.75 U·kg −1 of body weight) 15 min prior euthanization. Mice were fasted for 16 h before they were killed. (G) Densitometric analysis of the Western blots using skeletal muscle extracts shown in Supporting Information Figure S4A. n = 5 untreated, n = 6 T4‐treated. Values were normalized to untreated mice. (H) Densitometric analysis of the Western blots using liver extracts shown in Supporting Information Figure S4A. n = 5 untreated, n = 6 T4‐treated. Values were normalized to untreated mice. UT, untreated; T4, T4‐treated. Data shown are the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05, significantly different from untreated mice; two tailed Student's t ‐test. Figure 5 Figure 5 T4 blunts the onset of T1DM in the RIP‐B7.1 model of EAD and Figure 5 T4 blunts the onset of T1DM in the RIP‐B7.1 model of EAD and increases survival in STZ‐challenged C57BL/6 mice. (A) Body weight of RIP‐B7.1 mice. n = 8 untreated; n = 9 T4‐treated. (B) Organs weight of RIP‐B7.1 mice. n = 6 untreated; n = 9 T4‐treated. (C) Glucose concentration in blood during an OGTT at 4 weeks of T4‐treatment of RIP‐B7.1 mice. n = 8 untreated; n = 9 T4‐treated. (D) AUC of glucose levels during the OGTT. (E) Glucose concentration in blood during and ITT at 5 weeks of T4‐treatment of RIP‐B7.1 mice. n = 7 untreated; n = 9 T4‐treated. (F) AUC of glucose levels during the ITT. (G) Postprandial glucose concentration in blood on RIP‐B7.1 mice. n = 8 untreated; n = 9 T4‐treated. (H) Circulating insulin levels in fed conditions. n = 7 untreated; n = 8 T4‐treated. (I) Survival of C57BL/6 mice challenged with STZ. n = 9 per group. (J) Postprandial glucose concentration in blood from C57BL/6 mice challenged with STZ. Alive animals were included (see Figure 5I for n in each time point). UT, untreated; T4, T4‐treated; IMM, immunization. Arrows indicate the time of immunization. Data shown are the means ± SEM * P < 0.05, significantly different from untreated mice; two tailed Student's t ‐test. A LogRank survival test was applied to survival curves. Figure 6 T4 increases insulin expression and Figure 6 T4 increases insulin expression and enhances beta cell proliferation in the RIP‐B7.1 model Figure 6 T4 increases insulin expression and enhances beta cell proliferation in the RIP‐B7.1 model of EAD. (A) Representative images of glucagon (GLC) and insulin (INS) staining in pancreases from immunized RIP‐B7.1 mice, with or without T4. Diaminobenzidine staining followed by haematoxylin counterstaining. Scale bar, 50 μm. n = 6 untreated; n = 5 T4‐treated. (B) Quantification of insulin staining (mean intensity). (C) Quantification of glucagon staining (mean intensity). (D) Representative images of Ki67 and insulin staining in pancreas from immunized RIP‐B7.1 mice, with or without T4. Immunofluorescence followed by DAPI staining. Scale bar = 50 μm. n = 5 untreated; n = 5 T4‐treated. (E) Percentage of Ki67 + ‐Insulin + cells over total insulin + cells. (F) Representative images of TUNEL and insulin staining in pancreases from immunized RIP‐B7.1 mice, with or without T4. Immunofluorescence followed by DAPI staining. Scale bar = 50 μm. n = 5 per group. (G) TUNEL Insulin + cells, as % total insulin + cells. UT, untreated; T4, T4‐treated. Arrows indicate representative positive staining. Data shown are the means ± SEM. * P < 0.05, significantly different from untreated mice; two tailed Student's t ‐test.
Cheng ST, Chen L, Li SY, Mayoux E, Leung PS. Cheng ST, et al. PLoS One.2016 Jan 25;11(1):e0147391. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147391. eCollection 2016. PLoS One.2016. PMID: 26807719 Free PMC article. Irwin N, Pathak V, Pathak NM, Gault VA, Flatt PR. Irwin N, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab.2015 Sep;17(9):887-95. doi: 10.1111/dom.12508. Epub 2015 Jul 24. Diabetes Obes Metab.2015. PMID: 26095087 Daems C, Welsch S, Boughaleb H, Vanderroost J, Robert A, Sokal E, Lysy PA. Daems C, et al. J Diabetes Res.2019 Jul 30;2019:2813489. doi: 10.1155/2019/2813489. eCollection 2019. J Diabetes Res.2019. PMID: 31467926 Free PMC article. Brill AL, Wisinski JA, Cadena MT, Thompson MF, Fenske RJ, Brar HK, Schaid MD, Pasker RL, Kimple ME. Brill AL, et al. Mol Endocrinol.2016 May;30(5):543-56. doi: 10.1210/me.2015-1164. Epub 2016 Apr 6. Mol Endocrinol.2016. PMID: 27049466 Free PMC article. Wu M, Chen W, Zhang S, Huang S, Zhang A, Zhang Y, Jia Z. Wu M, et al. Apoptosis.2019 Dec;24(11-12):879-891. doi: 10.1007/s10495-019-01566-4. Apoptosis.2019. PMID: 31485878
Kim H, Jung DY, Lee SH, Cho JH, Yim HW, Kim HS. Kim H, et al. J Diabetes.2022 Sep;14(9):620-629. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.13315. Epub 2022 Sep 16. J Diabetes.2022. PMID: 36114679 Free PMC article. Hu Y, Hu Z, Tang W, Liu W, Wu X, Pan C. Hu Y, et al. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes.2022 Aug 12;15:2467-2477. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S354872. eCollection 2022. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes.2022. PMID: 35982763 Free PMC article. Rudolf AM, Wu Q, Li L, Wang J, Huang Y, Togo J, Liechti C, Li M, Niu C, Nie Y, Wei F, Speakman JR. Rudolf AM, et al. Natl Sci Rev.2021 Jul 15;9(2):nwab125. doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwab125. eCollection 2022 Feb. Natl Sci Rev.2021. PMID: 35251670 Free PMC article. Aguilera Y, Mellado-Damas N, Olmedo-Moreno L, López V, Panadero-Morón C, Benito M, Guerrero-Cázares H, Márquez-Vega C, Martín-Montalvo A, Capilla-González V. Aguilera Y, et al. Cancers (Basel).2021 Mar 9;13(5):1169. doi: 10.3390/cancers13051169. Cancers (Basel).2021. PMID: 33803160 Free PMC article. López-Noriega L, Rutter GA. López-Noriega L, et al. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne).2021 Feb 8;11:610213. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.610213. eCollection 2020. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne).2021. PMID: 33628198 Free PMC article. Review.
: Levothyroxine enhances glucose clearance and blunts the onset of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus in mice – PubMed
Does hypothyroidism affect insulin?
Introduction – Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 maintain a fine balance of glucose homeostasis by acting as insulin agonistic and antagonistic. Hypothyroidism can break this equilibrium and alter glucose metabolism, which can lead to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathophysiological phenomenon underlying the metabolic syndrome, which is a major cardiovascular risk factor.
Previous studies have established overt hypothyroidism as a risk factor for insulin resistance. Several studies were done to establish an association between SCH and effects of insulin on glucose homeostasis. In some studies no significant difference in insulin and HOMA IR was observed when compared with euthyroids state.
However, few studies have reported hyperinsulinemia in SCH. Controversies still exists. Hence this study was undertaken to see the relationship between thyroid function and insulin resistance in SCH.
What does hypothyroidism do to diabetics?
Effects on Diabetes – Hyperthyroidism. When your metabolism quickens, your medicines go through your body quicker. Your blood glucose level may rise because your usual dosage does not stay in your body long enough to control it. Hyperthyroidism and low blood glucose can be hard to tell apart.
- If you are sweating and having tremors from hyperthyroidism, you may think you have low blood glucose and eat extra food, causing your blood glucose to rise.
- Using your glucose meter to verify low blood glucose levels can help you avoid this problem.
- When your metabolism slows, your blood glucose level may drop because your diabetes medicine doesn’t pass through your body as quickly as usual and so stays active longer.
In hypothyroidism, it is often necessary to reduce your dose of diabetes medicines to prevent low blood glucose.
How can I control my thyroid and diabetes?
Prevention and Management – If you have been diagnosed with either thyroid disease or diabetes, achieving and maintaining your ideal weight is one of the best ways to prevent the other condition. Keeping your blood sugar or thyroid hormones under control can also help.
Can levothyroxine raise your blood sugar?
Drug Safety Sheet Information – Detective work on the topic of thyroid drug pharmacology provides this information. Abbvie Labs, the makers of Synthroid provide this statement on their website hidden deep within their professional literature in the miscellaneous section.
“Addition of levothyroxine to antidiabetic or insulin therapy may result in increased antidiabetic agent or insulin requirements. Careful monitoring of diabetic control is recommended, especially when thyroid therapy is started, changed, or discontinued.” The only other statement found within Synthroid/levothyroxine professional literature on this risk was “Levothyroxine has a narrow therapeutic index.
Regardless of the indication for use, careful dosage titration is necessary to avoid the consequences of over- or under-treatment. These conditions includeglucose and lipid metabolism.” There is no further description or discussion of what the glucose and lipid metabolism consequences may be for people who are not diabetic.
- Armour thyroid drug safety information states: “Diabetes patients – Armour Thyroid may affect your blood sugar.
- Check blood sugar levels closely.” The drug information sheet for the brand name Eltroxin and generic levothyroxine specifically states that “Levothyroxine raises blood sugar levels.
- For people with diabetes, this may result in an increase in the requirements for insulin or antidiabetes medications.
Monitor your blood sugar more closely when starting or changing doses of this medication.” These warnings are found only in the drug-drug interactions or miscellaneous sections for those on diabetic medications. The general adverse effects information, which is where most individuals look, has absolutely no mention of potential blood sugar consequence.
Can hypothyroidism trigger diabetes?
Thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus are closely linked. Several studies have documented the increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus and vice versa.
What is the super food for thyroid?
8. Broccoli – Broccoli is rich in calcium and vitamin C. It helps the body boost metabolism and is rich in fibre. Anything that helps increase metabolism is beneficial for thyroid patients. Broccoli rises the TEF- Thermic Effect of Food, i.e. it increases the body’s metabolism once eaten.
|Tips for Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism|
|Diet – Be sure to follow the above list and maintain a healthy diet. Always speak with your doctor before making any changes to your diet.|
|Exercise – Sweating it out is great for your health regardless of your medical condition. Do a variety of workout routines from mild walks to intense aerobics, this will help you to maintain good metabolism. It can also help combat some of the symptoms of hypothyroidism.|
|Stress – Stress releases the hormone cortisol, too much of it can mess with your hormonal balance. Managing your stress actively can help to balance your thyroid symptoms.|
|Rest – Fatigue is a common symptom of hypothyroidism, especially if you decide to stay active for your health. Be sure to get enough rest and sleep daily to build up your endurance.|
|Avoid harmful chemicals – The body has a natural system for getting rid of toxins and other harmful chemicals but you may overload your body if you’re not careful. The thyroid is easily affected by these kinds of toxins. Avoid pesticides, strong chemicals and products that may introduce harmful stuff into your environment.|
|Medication – Take your medication on time, every day. All the above tips can support your health but the medication is what will keep you in the best shape. Speak with your doctor if you need to take other medicines that may interact with your thyroid pills.|
Is coffee good for thyroid?
Authored by Dr Batra’s Doctors Priya follows a hectic routine. Balancing her dual roles as a mother and a university teacher, she has late nights and early mornings. Of late, she began feeling dull through the day and started experiencing severe hair fall.
Priya ignored this for a while, thinking it was a symptom of her hectic life. However, when she missed her period by a month, she realised it was time to see her doctor. Much to her surprise, Priya was diagnosed with Hypothyroidism, Book an appointment Thyroid problems have become an increasingly common occurrence today.
From adolescents to the elderly, this disorder can affect almost any age group. Medical research indicates that more than anything, our lifestyle and dietary choices are to blame. Like Priya, many working women follow tough schedules and rely on a daily dose of caffeine to perk up and feel energised.
Causes a sudden spike in blood sugar
Studies conducted have shown that coffee increases blood sugar levels. This exhausts the adrenals and leads to thyroid problems. This is especially bad if you have hypoglycaemia as it can leave you feeling nervous and anxious through the day. Moreover, regular consumption of coffee is known to create dependency. You will crave a daily fix of sugar and carbohydrates at the start of each day.
Interferes in secretion and absorption of hormones
Coffee affects the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland trio. These in turn affect your thyroid health. Drinking several cups of coffee stimulates excess secretion of epinephrine and cortisol which are stress hormones. This leaves your body in constant state of anxiety.
Tires out your adrenal glands
Coffee stimulates the adrenals to secrete cortisol. This is why you feel a sudden burst of energy after your morning cup. An excess of caffeine combined with a high carb diet can wear out your adrenal gland. This slows down the thyroid gland and is one of the primary causes of Hypothyroidism.
Leads to oxidative damage
Coffee is high inflammatory. This means that it causes damage on a cellular level. Certain foods are more inflammatory and they make our cells burn and die out faster. Inflammation leads to diabetes, brittle skin and nails, muscle cramps, insomnia, and thyroid problems. Coffee is also acidic and if taken on an empty stomach, can begin to damage your intestinal and stomach lining.
Creates bouts of insomnia
Caffeine is a stimulant and inhibits sleep inducing hormones in the brain. Studies have shown that drinking over 4 to 5 cups of coffee daily can lead to sleeplessness and anxiety at night. Those who consume coffee with milk and sugar are affected more because milk and sugar cause more insulin to be released in the blood stream, thus upsetting the thyroid hormones.
The truth about decaffeinated coffee Many working people have switched to decaf coffee beverages in an effort to skip the harmful effects of caffeine. However, decaffeinated coffee undergoes much chemical treatment to remove the caffeine. Thus, decaf is not as good for your body as it seems to be. A lot of advertising in the media promotes decaf as a healthy substitute.
However, consume it in moderation and with caution. Chemically treated foods have very little nutrition and cause more health problems.
Why do diabetics get thyroid problems?
– Evidence suggests that there is a link between insulin resistance and both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Because thyroid hormones are essential for carbohydrate metabolism, thyroid dysfunction can impact insulin and lead to the development of type 2 diabetes,
- Insulin resistance may occur due to hyperthyroidism because of an increase in fatty free acids in the bloodstream.
- In body fat, the thyroid hormone stimulates a process called lipolysis, which involves the breakdown of body fat into serum-free fatty acids.
- Research suggests there is a link between the levels of serum-free fatty acids and diabetes because these fatty acids can hinder insulin secretion and cause insulin resistance.
A 2017 review found a link between insulin resistance and even small increases in the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which tends to be high in hypothyroidism. Research suggests there is an association between hypothyroidism and insulin resistance partially because of insulin’s decreased ability to increase glucose utilization in muscle.
What is the most effective way to lose weight with hypothyroidism?
Frequently Asked Questions – Is it possible to lose weight when you have hypothyroidism? While it may be more difficult, it is possible to lose weight when you have hypothyroidism. Certain foods can help support thyroid function and may help control your weight.
Try to avoid foods that cause inflammation, such as those high in added sugars and highly processed foods. Why can’t I lose weight with hypothyroidism? People who have hypothyroidism have thyroids that make fewer hormones. This causes their metabolism to slow down and burn fewer calories. Hypothyroidism can also make a person feel tired and less motivated to exercise.
What is the best diet to lose weight if you have hypothyroidism? The best way to lose weight with hypothyroidism is to focus on eating vegetables, fruits, lean meats, and healthy fats. These foods help you feel full faster than processed and high-sugar foods and may promote a healthy weight.
How long does it take to lose weight with hypothyroidism? The time it takes to lose weight when you have hypothyroidism differs for each person. It depends on how well they control their thyroid hormone levels, the types of foods they eat, and how active they are. K Health articles are all written and reviewed by MDs, PhDs, NPs, or PharmDs and are for informational purposes only.
This information does not constitute and should not be relied on for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment.
Can you get skinny with hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism slows down your metabolism, making it more difficult to lose extra pounds and maintain a healthy body weight. But weight loss is still possible with hypothyroidism.
Can you ever lose weight with hypothyroidism?
Foods To Avoid – Is it possible to lose weight when you have hypothyroidism? Yes, it is possible to lose weight when you have hypothyroidism, but only if you’re willing to change up your diet. Avoid inflammatory foods for weight loss when you have an underactive thyroid, contributing to weight gain.
- Nuts and seeds
- Dried fruits
- Beans/legumes (because of the potential allergen lectin )
- All nightshade vegetables :
- Vegetable oils, like canola oil
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- Refined sugar
- Alternative sweeteners:
- Processed foods
Cutting out these inflammatory foods will promote healthy weight loss and may even lessen the severity of your hypothyroidism.