The main difference between the type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 diabetes is a genetic condition that often shows up early in life, and type 2 is mainly lifestyle-related and develops over time. With type 1 diabetes, your immune system is attacking and destroying the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.
– Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have things in common, there are lots of differences. Like what causes them, who they affect, and how you should manage them. For a start, type 1 affects 8% of everyone with diabetes. While type 2 diabetes affects about 90%. Some people get confused between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
This can mean you have to explain that what works for one type doesn’t work for the other, and that there are different causes. The main thing to remember is that both are as serious as each other. Having high blood glucose (or sugar) levels can lead to serious health complications, no matter whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
Can clinical features be used to differentiate type 1 diabetes type 2?
Abstract – Objective: Clinicians predominantly use clinical features to differentiate type 1 from type 2 diabetes yet there are no evidence-based clinical criteria to aid classification of patients. Misclassification of diabetes is widespread (7-15% of cases), resulting in patients receiving inappropriate treatment. We sought to identify which clinical criteria could be used to discriminate type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Design: Systematic review of all diagnostic accuracy studies published since 1979 using clinical criteria to predict insulin deficiency (measured by C-peptide). Data sources: 14 databases including: MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process and EMBASE. The search strategy took the form of: (terms for diabetes) AND (terms for C-Peptide). Eligibility criteria: Diagnostic accuracy studies of any routinely available clinical predictors against a reference standard of insulin deficiency defined by cut-offs of C-peptide concentrations. No restrictions on race, age, language or country of origin. Results: 10,917 abstracts were screened, and 231 full texts reviewed.11 studies met inclusion criteria, but varied by age, race, year and proportion of participants who were C-peptide negative. Age at diagnosis was the most discriminatory feature in 7/9 studies where it was assessed, with optimal cut-offs (>70% mean sensitivity and specificity) across studies being <30 years or <40 years. Use of/time to insulin treatment and body mass index (BMI) were also discriminatory. When combining features, BMI added little over age at diagnosis and/or time to insulin (<1% improvement in classification). Conclusions: Despite finding only 11 studies, and considerable heterogeneity between studies, age at diagnosis and time to insulin were consistently the most discriminatory criteria. BMI, despite being widely used in clinical practice, adds little to these two criteria. The criteria identified are similar to the Royal College of General Practitioners National Health Service (RCGP/NHS) Diabetes classification guidelines, which use age at diagnosis <35 years and time to insulin <6 m. Until further studies are carried out, these guidelines represent a suitable classification scheme. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO reference CRD42012001736. Keywords: STATISTICS & RESEARCH METHODS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Can a normal blood test detect type 2 diabetes?
The only way you can find out if you or a loved one has diabetes is from blood tests that measure you blood glucose (sugar) levels. These can be arranged through your GP. – A diagnosis of diabetes is always confirmed by laboratory results. You’ll usually get the results of your blood test back in a few days.
- If you have symptoms that came on quickly and you’ve been taken into hospital, the results should come back in an hour or two.
- A finger prick test using a home testing kit may show you have high blood sugar levels but won’t confirm you have diabetes.
- A normal blood test result will show you don’t have diabetes.
But the result will also show if you have diabetes or are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Why is HbA1c not used in type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes management: is HbA1c an out-of-date measure? – JDRF, the type 1 diabetes charity
- HbA1c has been an established clinical measure of glucose control for diabetes since the late 1970s, but, like sideburns and flares, has HbA1c become a relic that has outstayed its welcome?
- HbA1c tests measure glycosylated haemoglobin, which means how much glucose has ‘stuck’ to your red blood cells over the last 8-12 weeks.
- The higher the levels of glucose in the blood over this time, the more glucose gets stuck to your red blood cells.
In this way, clinicians can get a rough idea of whether someone with diabetes (any type) has blood glucose levels that are higher than a target level. Some have questioned, however, whether HbA1c alone is still a useful measure to consider when assessing type 1 management as it can only give a sense of average glucose levels over time, not the ups and downs that many experience on a day to day basis.
‘Time in range’ and other measures JDRF in the USA has spent two years working with clinicians, researchers, other funders, and people affected by type 1 diabetes to understand what we can measure beyond HbA1c; what else might be useful in order to understand the full story for someone managing their type 1 diabetes? The results show that HbA1c, while useful, cannot capture the day-to-day variations in blood glucose levels and other complexities that make up life with type 1.
With advancing technology, however, we can make use of increasing amounts of data to explore glucose level changes in more detail, such as time spent in range, or long periods of time avoiding hypos. summarising the findings suggests that other measurable outcomes should be considered when building a fuller picture of type 1 management, including hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic events, time in range, and experience of diabetic ketoacidosis.
- Beyond the numbers – examining feelings
- Relying not just on numbers, but on physical and emotional feelings also reflects the fact that different people can experience different physical responses to the same glucose level.
The most important message that comes out of the research is that evaluation of type 1 management comes from more than just tests. Everyone with type 1 experiences the condition through a different lens, and the clinical and research world needs to shift to adapt to these different perspectives, and develop a more personalised approach to treatment and research.
To this end, the consensus statement highlights the importance of patient reported outcomes, or PROs. A PRO is any information given directly by someone living with a condition which is not interpreted through a clinician or test. In short, researchers and clinicians must listen to how people with type 1 describe their experience of managing the condition, and consider this alongside the numbers.
Only then can effective changes be made where needed. So while we should not scrap HbA1c as part of type 1 care, as with 1970s fashion, we should be open up to newer trends and updated approaches to type 1 management. : Type 1 diabetes management: is HbA1c an out-of-date measure? – JDRF, the type 1 diabetes charity
Which is a clinical feature which suggests type 2 diabetes?
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes Feeling tired and lacking energy. Feeling thirsty. Going to the toilet often. Getting infections frequently.
What are the clinical manifestations characteristics and clinical implications of type 1 diabetes?
What is type 1 diabetes? A Mayo Clinic expert explains – Learn more about type 1 diabetes from endocrinologist Yogish Kudva, M.B.B.S. I’m Dr. Yogish C. Kudva an endocrinologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of type 1 diabetes. What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
Whether you’re looking for answers for yourself or someone you love. We are here to give you the best information available. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the insulin making cells of the pancreas. It’s estimated that about 1.25 million Americans live with it. People with type 1 diabetes don’t make enough insulin.
An important hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin allows your cells to store sugar or glucose and fat and produce energy. Unfortunately, there is no known cure. But treatment can prevent complications and also improve everyday life for patients with type 1 diabetes.
Lots of people with type 1 diabetes live a full life. And the more we learn and develop treatment for the disorder, the better the outcome. We don’t know what exactly causes type 1 diabetes. We believe that it is an auto-immune disorder where the body mistakenly destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas.
Typically, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin circulates, letting sugar enter your cells. This sugar or glucose, is the main source of energy for cells in the brain, muscle cells, and other tissues. However, once most insulin producing cells are destroyed, the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin, meaning the glucose can’t enter the cells, resulting in an excess of blood sugar floating in the bloodstream.
- This can cause life-threatening complications.
- And this condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis.
- Although we don’t know what causes it, we do know certain factors can contribute to the onset of type 1 diabetes.
- Family history.
- Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing it.
Genetics. The presence of certain genes can also indicate an increased risk. Geography. Type 1 diabetes becomes more common as you travel away from the equator. Age, although it can occur at any age there are two noticeable peaks. The first occurs in children between four and seven years of age and the second is between 10 and 14 years old.
- Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can appear rather suddenly, especially in children.
- They may include increased thirst, frequent urination, bed wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed.
- Extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, fatigue and weakness, blurred vision, irritability, and other mood changes.
If you or your child are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should talk to your doctor. The best way to determine if you have type 1 diabetes is a blood test. There are different methods such as an A1C test, a random blood sugar test, or a fasting blood sugar test.
They are all effective and your doctor can help determine what’s appropriate for you. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may order additional tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes in the test called C-peptide, which measures the amount of insulin produced when checked simultaneously with a fasting glucose.
These tests can help distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when a diagnosis is uncertain. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering what treatment looks like. It could mean taking insulin, counting carbohydrates, fat protein, and monitoring your glucose frequently, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight.
Generally, those with type 1 diabetes will need lifelong insulin therapy. There are many different types of insulin and more are being developed that are more efficient. And what you may take may change. Again, your doctor will help you navigate what’s right for you. A significant advance in treatment from the last several years has been the development and availability of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pumps that automatically adjust insulin working with the continuous glucose monitor.
This type of treatment is the best treatment at this time for type 1 diabetes. This is an exciting time for patients and for physicians that are keen to develop, prescribe such therapies. Surgery is another option. A successful pancreas transplant can erase the need for additional insulin.
However, transplants aren’t always available, not successful and the procedure can pose serious risks. Sometimes it may outweigh the dangers of diabetes itself. So transplants are often reserved for those with very difficult to manage conditions. A successful transplant can bring life transforming results.
However, surgery is always a serious endeavor and requires ample research and concentration from you, your family, and your medical team. The fact that we don’t know what causes type 1 diabetes can be alarming. The fact that we don’t have a cure for it even more so.
- But with the right doctor, medical team and treatment, type 1 diabetes can be managed.
- So those who live with it can get on living.
- If you would like to learn even more about type 1 diabetes, watch our other related videos or visit mayoclinic.org.
- We wish you well.
- Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose).
Glucose is an important source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and tissues. It’s also the brain’s main source of fuel. The main cause of diabetes varies by type. But no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in the blood.
Too much sugar in the blood can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes happens when blood sugar levels are higher than normal. But the blood sugar levels aren’t high enough to be called diabetes.
And prediabetes can lead to diabetes unless steps are taken to prevent it. Gestational diabetes happens during pregnancy. But it may go away after the baby is born.
Which are clinical findings usually associated with type 1 diabetes?
History – The most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, along with lassitude, nausea, and blurred vision, all of which result from the hyperglycemia itself. Polyuria is caused by osmotic diuresis secondary to hyperglycemia.
- Severe nocturnal enuresis secondary to polyuria can be an indication of onset of diabetes in young children.
- Thirst is a response to the hyperosmolar state and dehydration.
- Fatigue and weakness may be caused by muscle wasting from the catabolic state of insulin deficiency, hypovolemia, and hypokalemia.
Muscle cramps are caused by electrolyte imbalance. Blurred vision results from the effect of the hyperosmolar state on the lens and vitreous humor. Glucose and its metabolites cause osmotic swelling of the lens, altering its normal focal length. Symptoms at the time of the first clinical presentation can usually be traced back several days to several weeks.
However, beta-cell destruction may have started months, or even years, before the onset of clinical symptoms. The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 DM to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which may occur de novo or secondary to the stress of illness or surgery.
An explosive onset of symptoms in a young lean patient with ketoacidosis always has been considered diagnostic of type 1 DM. Over time, patients with new-onset type 1 DM will lose weight, despite normal or increased appetite, because of depletion of water and a catabolic state with reduced glycogen, proteins, and triglycerides.
- Nausea, abdominal discomfort or pain, and change in bowel movements may accompany acute DKA
- Acute fatty liver may lead to distention of the hepatic capsule, causing right upper quadrant pain
- Persistent abdominal pain may indicate another serious abdominal cause of DKA (eg, pancreatitis
- Chronic GI symptoms in the later stage of DM are caused by visceral autonomic neuropathy
Neuropathy affects up to 50% of patients with type 1 DM, but symptomatic neuropathy is typically a late development, developing after many years of chronic prolonged hyperglycemia. Peripheral neuropathy presents as numbness and tingling in both hands and feet, in a glove-and-stocking pattern; it is bilateral, symmetric, and ascending.