The history of diabetes started in approximately 1550BC, long before the mechanics of the disease were understood. Over time diabetes has since become classified as different types and treatments have evolved so people can live for longer and reduce the risk of long-term health complications developing.
Approximately 1550BC An Egyptian papyrus mentions a rare disease that causes the patient to lose weight rapidly and urinate frequently. This is thought to be the first reference to diabetes. 250 BC The creation of the term “diabetes” is credited to Apollonius of Memphis, which refers to a disease which drains patients of more fluid than they can consume. 131-201 CE A Greek physician, Galen of Pergamum, theorises that diabetes is an affliction of the kidneys. After this period, diabetes is rarely mentioned. 1025 A Persian polymath called Avicenna (980-1037) publishes “The Canon of Medicine” in 1025, providing a detailed account on diabetes mellitus. The sweet urine of people with diabetes is described, as is abnormal appetite, diabetic gangrene and sexual dysfunction. Up to 11 th Century Around this period, ‘uroscopy’ becomes a way of identifying disease, which involves examining the colour, sediment and odour of urine to try to establish what is wrong with the patient. Some physicians even taste the urine, and this is apparently how diabetes is given its second name mellitus, meaning ‘honey’ in Latin. 1770-1800 Matthew Dobson identifies that the sweet taste in the urine of people with diabetes is due to excess sugar in the urine and the blood. He also observes that diabetes is fatal for somen, leading to death within five weeks, while others live much longer. This is the first indication of two different types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. John Rollo treats a patient using a high-fat and protein diet, the first significant dietary approach to the treatment of diabetes. 1800s Claude Bernard coins the term “glycogen” after discovering a substance formed by the liver that he reports is the same sugar found in the urine of those with diabetes. This is the first link between diabetes, glycogen and metabolism. Johann Peter Frank is credited as being the first physician to distinguish clinical differences between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Early 19 th Century By the early 19th Century, chemical tests have been devised which can detect excess sugar in the urine. Despite therapies being proposed, in the absence of a cause, they prove unsuccessful. It was not until the Franco-Prussian War, when the French Physician Bouchardat noticed that restricted diets helped his patients, that calorie intake is recognised as important. 1869 Medical student Paul Langerhans reveals that the pancreas contains two types of cells, of which one secretes tiny cells islands. The function of these cells is currently unknown; they go on to be referred to as the “Islets of Langerhans”. 1889 Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski remove pancreases from dogs and discover that they develop the symptoms of diabetes. Early 1900s Jean de Meyer and Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer both independently propose the name “insulin”, it is believed, in reference to the tiny cell islands in the pancreas – the islets of Langerhans. Insulin is latin for “insula”, meaning island. Stanley Rossiter Benedict devises a new method to measure glucose in sugar, which comes to be known as Benedict’s Solution. 1919 Dr Frederick Allen publishes a book, “Total Dietary Restriction in the Treatment of Diabetes”, which reveals case records of diabetes patients treated with the ‘starvation diet’. The treatment helps extend the lives of diabetes patients, but many of his patients die as a result of starvation. 1920s It is not until 1920 that an American called Moses Barron links the Langerhans cells with the basis of diabetes mellitus. Picking up on the research of Barro, a doctor called Frederick Banting conducts critical experiments linking the pancreas and diabetes. Banting and Charles Best demonstrate that administering the islets of Langerhans from healthy dogs to dogs which have had their pancreases removed can treat high sugar levels. James Collip purifies this insulin and it is treated for the first time on a huma, 14-year-old Leonard Thompson The work is considered a great success. The average life expectancy for a child with type 1 diabetes at the beginning of the 20th Century is roughly a year; Leonard lives until the age of 27, when he eventually dies of pnuemonia Banting and JJR Macleod, who gave Banting and Best his laboratories to work i, are recognised for their achievement with a Nobel Prize in 1923. Banting shares his award with Best; Macleod shares his with Collip. Eli Lilly strikes a deal for the first mass production of insulin in North America. 1936 Sir Harold Percival publishes research which divides diabetes into type 1 and type 2 based on the degree of insulin sensitivity in patients. 1940s Insulin treatments continue to develop and by 1945 the life expectancy of someone with diabetes is increasing. By 1945, a newly-diagnosed 10-year-old has a life expectancy of 45 years; a 50-year-old might live for another 16 years. Dr Elliot Proctor Joslin and his staff develop the first hospital blood glucose monitoring system. Joslin also sets up The Victory Medal award in 1947 to celebrate patients who live with diabetes for 25 years and have no health complications regarding their kidneys, eyes and blood vessels. Helen Free develops the Clinistix “dip-and-read” urine test which allows instant monitoring of blood glucose levels. 1955 The first oral drug is developed, carbutamide, to help lower blood glucose levels. 1960s Urine strips are made available for home testing helping people with diabetes get faster readings. Blood testing technology also makes advances. Miles Laboratories releases Dextrostix, testing strips which require a drop of blood for a minute. The blood is then washed off and an indication of blood sugar levels is revealed on a colour chart. Doctors at the University of Minnesota attempt the first pancreas transplantation in an attempt to cure type 1 diabetes. 1970s The first insulin pump is invented by Dean Kamen. Another insulin breakthrough is made in the form of U-100 insulin. The HbA1c test is introduced into clinical laboratories for the first time in 1977. The first synthetic human insulin is produced using recombinant DNA techniques. Prior to this development insulin manufacturers have had to stockpile pancreatic tissue from animals. 1980s Humuli, the first biosynthetic human insulin, is approved for distribution in several countries. It is identical to the structure of human insulin and has the advantage of being less likely to lead to allergic reactions than animal insulin. The first insulin pen delivery system, called the NovoPe, is introduced by Novo Nordisk in 1985. 1991 The World Health Organisation launches World Diabetes Day in response to the rapid rise of diabetes around the world. It is held on November 14, the birthday of Frederick Banting. 1992 Medtronic releases the MiniMed 506 insulin pump, which delivers meal bolus memory and daily insulin totals. 1993 The landmark Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) report is published, demonstrating that regular activity and good nutrition help to improve diabetes control and stave off the risk of long-term health complications. Instant Glucose tablets are introduced, marking a significant development in treating hypoglycemia. 1996 The first recombinant DNA human analogue insulin is marketed by Eli Lilly. Humalog (lispro) is genetically engineered insulin which contains an amino acid sequence and alters how insulin is absorbed. 1997 Dr Richard Bernstein publishes ‘Diabetes Solution’ which addresses lowering carbohydrate intake as a means of achieving good blood glucose control and avoiding diabetes-related complications. 2000 There is growing interest in islet cell transplantation as Shapiro et al publish findings from seven patients with type 1 diabetes who undergo the procedure as a means of helping them achieve insulin independence. 2008 Suzanna M. de la Monte proposes the term ” type 3 diabetes ” to describe insulin resistance in the brain. 2013 The University of Cambridge trials an artificial pancreas which combines the technology of an insulin pump with a continuous glucose monitor. 2015 Dr Edward Damiano introduces the iLet, a bionic pancreas that delivers both insulin and glucagon every five minutes. Damiano describes the device as a “bridge to a cure”.
What is the origin of diabetes?
Origin of the term ‘diabetes’ – The term diabetes is the shortened version of the full name diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is derived from the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon – to pass through and the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet.
- This is because in diabetes excess sugar is found in blood as well as the urine.
- It was known in the 17th century as the “pissing evil”.
- The term diabetes was probably coined by Apollonius of Memphis around 250 BC.
- Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425.
It was in 1675 that Thomas Willis added the word “‘mellitus'” to the word diabetes. This was because of the sweet taste of the urine. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians as is evident from their literature.
When did diabetes start to rise?
Key facts –
The number of people with diabetes rose from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. Prevalence has been rising more rapidly in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. Between 2000 and 2019, there was a 3% increase in diabetes mortality rates by age. In 2019, diabetes and kidney disease due to diabetes caused an estimated 2 million deaths. A healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications.
Why has diabetes increased over the years?
Background – With 382 million people living with diabetes in 2013, the World Health Organization declared the condition as being epidemic, It is estimated that diabetes will affect 3.7 million Canadians in 2018, making it the principal health challenge of the country,
Diabetes is associated with many health complications. Comparing the population with and without diabetes, those with diabetes have a 300% increased risk of being hospitalized, Annual per capita healthcare costs for people with diabetes are three to four times greater than for individuals without diabetes,
How There Could Finally Be A Cure For Diabetes
New Brunswick is one of the provinces in Canada where the prevalence of diabetes is the highest, The prevalence of diabetes is estimated to have increased by 86% in this province between 2000 and 2010, A population-level increase in prevalence of diabetes may be attributable to a wide range of potential factors,
Obesity is often seen as the main contributor to an increasing prevalence of diabetes but other factors such as ageing, ethnicity, lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity and energy dense diet), socioeconomic status, education, and urbanization have also been identified as potentially important factors,
Further findings also suggest that increasing incidence rates of diabetes and global changes are other potential explanatory factors (e.g. environmental pollution, obesogenic environment and rapid socioeconomic development) that could affect the entire population,
In addition to changes in the prevalence of risk factors, other elements, including increases in screening, changes in diagnostic criteria, and decreasing mortality rates among individuals with diabetes could contribute to the rise in prevalence of this condition. Perhaps due to the wide variety of factors potentially responsible for an increase in prevalence of diabetes, no studies have attempted to present a comprehensive list of factors which could be responsible for population-level changes in prevalence of diabetes.
A comprehensive list of factors that contribute to the growing prevalence of diabetes would provide a foundation for population health planning in developing successful strategies to address this epidemic of diabetes. As such, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop a comprehensive list of factors to consider when trying to identify causes of change in prevalence of diabetes in a population and (2) to use this list to describe factors that may be responsible for the recent increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick.
Has diabetes always existed?
Discovery of diabetes – Share on Pinterest Joseph von Mering (pictured) and Oskar Minkowski are credited with discovering in 1899 that the removal of the pancreas from a dog allowed it to develop diabetes. Image credit: PD-US Over 3,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians mentioned a condition that appears to have been type 1 diabetes.
It featured excessive urination, thirst, and weight loss. The writers recommended following a diet of whole grains to reduce the symptoms. In ancient India, people discovered that they could use ants to test for diabetes by presenting urine to them. If the ants came to the urine, this was a sign that it contained high sugar levels.
They called the condition madhumeha, meaning honey urine. During the third century B.C.E., Apollonius of Memphis mentioned the term “diabetes,” which may have been its earliest reference. In time, Greek physicians also distinguished between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus,
Diabetes insipidus has no link with diabetes mellitus. While it also leads to thirst and urination, it does not affect the body’s production or use of insulin. Diabetes insipidus results from a problem with a hormone called vasopressin that the pituitary gland produces. The ancient Roman doctor Galen mentioned diabetes but noted that he had only ever seen two people with it, which suggests that it was relatively rare in those days.
By the fifth century C.E., people in India and China had worked out that there was a difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, They noted that type 2 diabetes was more common in heavy, wealthy people than in other people. At that time, this might have implied that these individuals ate more than other people and were less active.
- Nowadays, the ready supply of processed food has weakened the association between wealth and eating more, but obesity, diet, and a lack of exercise are still risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
- The term diabetes mellitus comes from the Greek word “diabetes” (to siphon or pass through) and the Latin word “mellitus” (honey or sweet).
In the Middle Ages, people believed that diabetes was a disease of the kidneys, but an English doctor in the late 18th century found that it occurred in people who had experienced an injury to the pancreas. In 1776, Matthew Dobson confirmed that the urine of people with diabetes could have a sweet taste.
According to an article that the journal Medical Observations and Enquiries published, he measured the glucose in urine and found that it was high in people with diabetes. Dobson also noted that diabetes could be fatal in some people but chronic in others, further clarifying the differences between type 1 and type 2.
By the early 19th century, there were no statistics about how common diabetes was, there was no effective treatment, and people usually died within weeks to months of first showing symptoms.
Why are so many people diabetic?
As per the National Diabetes Statistics Report (2020), around 34.2 million people in the United States have diabetes. As per the National Diabetes Statistics Report (2020), around 34.2 million people in the United States have diabetes, This counts for 10.5% of the US population.
- Diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, is rising at an alarming rate in the United States.
- Type 2 diabetes is a lifestyle disorder that is most commonly due to unhealthy eating patterns, lack of exercise, and genes.
- As per the American Diabetes Association, the number of Americans with diagnosed diabetes is projected to increase 165%, from 11 million in 2000 (prevalence of 4.0%) to 29 million in 2050 (prevalence of 7.2%).
The reason why diabetes is increasing in the United States can be attributed to various factors that include: Obesity Obesity and severe obesity trends have generally increased over the past 15 years. The diabetes cases have bloomed with the increase in the rates of obesity.
- Obesity is one of the most important factors that increase your risk of diabetes.
- Lack of physical activity Ceasing regular physical activity impairs the control of blood sugar levels (glycemic control) in healthy individuals and heightens your risk of diabetes.
- Quantitative and qualitative changes in diet Increased use of carbonated drinks and foods high in sugar, such as baked products made from white flour, processed and packed ready-to-eat foods, and fried foods, has contributed to an unhealthy eating pattern among Americans.
These foods can induce chronic inflammation, a factor that can lead to diabetes. Awareness There has been an improvement in awareness regarding the health effects of diabetes in the United States. This has led to people getting themselves tested for diabetes than they would have earlier.
- Change in diagnostic criteria and diagnosis Doctors have started screening patients for diabetes.
- A new term, ” prediabetes,” has been coined, which denotes the stage in which blood sugar levels are elevated, but the patient has not progressed to the stage of full-blown diabetes.
- Doctors recommend only exercises and dietary changes for this category of people.
If there is no improvement in blood sugar levels, doctors may consider starting medications. Because of the easier availability of a new blood test known as HbA1C, it is possible to diagnose diabetes without fasting for 12 hours. The American Diabetes Association recommended the test for routine screening in 2010.
- The test is a much reliable test for diagnosing diabetes early.
- Hence, diabetes is getting detected quite earlier, and young people are getting diagnosed with diabetes.
- Aging population Aging increases your risk for diabetes.
- With the advances in healthcare, people have an increased lifespan.
- Hence, there is a huge percentage of the aging population in the total number of people getting diagnosed with diabetes.
The increasing number of people getting diagnosed with diabetes is a sum of people
Who have been newly affected with diabetes, especially the young ones due to unhealthy lifestyle. Who have been living with diabetes but have been diagnosed with it after the availability of newer tests and an increase in screening for it.
There is also an increase in the number of the aging population who have been diagnosed with diabetes.
Are you born with diabetes or is it?
What leads to diabetes? – Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, but there are two factors that are important in both. You inherit a predisposition to the disease, then something in your environment triggers it. That’s right: genes alone are not enough.
Are younger people getting diabetes?
In the past, type 2 diabetes was most often seen in older adults. Now, it’s becoming increasingly common in teens and children due to dietary factors, rates of obesity, and low levels of physical activity. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 34 million U.S.
Is diabetes a life long thing?
Diabetes is usually a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood glucose (sugar) level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin. type 2 – where the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don’t react to insulin.
Can you have diabetes for 20 years and not know it?
Symptoms – Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can be living with type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. When signs and symptoms are present, they may include:
Increased thirst Frequent urination Increased hunger Unintended weight loss Fatigue Blurred vision Slow-healing sores Frequent infections Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck
How did type 2 diabetes start?
Insulin resistance – Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin well. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to keep up with the added demand. Over time, the pancreas can’t make enough insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.
Where was diabetes first discovered?
The condition known today as diabetes (usually referring to diabetes mellitus ) is thought to have been described in the Ebers Papyrus (c.1550 BC). Ayurvedic physicians (5th/6th century BC) first noted the sweet taste of diabetic urine, and called the condition madhumeha (“honey urine”).
- The term diabetes traces back to Demetrius of Apamea (1st century BC).
- For a long time, the condition was described and treated in traditional Chinese medicine as xiāo kě ( 消渴 ; “wasting-thirst”).
- Physicians of the medieval Islamic world, including Avicenna, have also written on diabetes.
- Early accounts often referred to diabetes as a disease of the kidneys.
In 1674, Thomas Willis suggested that diabetes may be a disease of the blood. Johann Peter Frank is credited with distinguishing diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus in 1794. In regard to diabetes mellitus, Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski are commonly credited with the formal discovery (1889) of a role for the pancreas in causing the condition.
In 1893, Édouard Laguesse suggested that the islet cells of the pancreas, described as “little heaps of cells” by Paul Langerhans in 1869, might play a regulatory role in digestion. These cells were named Islets of Langerhans after the original discoverer. In the beginning of the 20th century, physicians hypothesized that the islets secrete a substance (named “insulin”) that metabolises carbohydrates.
The discovery and purification of insulin for clinical use between 1921–1922 by a group of researchers in Toronto— Frederick Banting, J.J.R. Macleod, Charles Best, and James Collip —paved the way for treatment. The patent for insulin was assigned to the University of Toronto in 1923 for a symbolic dollar to keep treatment accessible.
In regard to diabetes insipidus, treatment became available before the causes of the disease were clarified. The discovery of an antidiuretic substance extracted from the pituitary gland by researchers in Italy (A. Farini and B. Ceccaroni) and Germany (R. Von den Velden) in 1913 paved the way for treatment.
By the 1920s, accumulated findings defined diabetes insipidus as a disorder of the pituitary. The main question now became whether the cause of diabetes insipidus lay in the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus, given their intimate connection. In 1954, Berta and Ernst Scharrer concluded that the hormones were produced by the nuclei of cells in the hypothalamus.