How Is Diabetes Treated?

How Is Diabetes Treated
Type 2 Diabetes Medications – People with type 2 diabetes usually need treatment with oral medicines for several or even many years but may eventually need insulin to maintain glucose control. There are many types of medications that can be prescribed for you.

  1. The various options may be overwhelming—memorizing all the names and technical terms isn’t important, but understanding that there ARE options is what you need to know.
  2. Work with your doctor to determine which of these might be most helpful for you.
  3. Metformin is a medication commonly used as the first medication for people with diabetes.

It is a pill taken by mouth and it comes in regular and slow release forms. It works by helping stop the liver from converting protein or fat into sugar. It does not cause an increase in the release of insulin but can make the body more sensitive to insulin effects.

  • It may be taken on its own or with other diabetes pills or insulin.
  • It also comes in a one pill combination with other diabetes medications.
  • DPP-4 inhibitor medicines (generic names: sitagliptin saxagliptin, and linagliptin) are a type of incretin-based medicine for type 2 diabetes.
  • This kind of medicine is based on the action of hormones called incretins, which help control how the pancreas works.

GLP-1 incretins cause your pancreas to produce more insulin after you eat, helping your body use glucose. The effects of GLP-1 only last a few minutes, because an enzyme (a substance that causes a chemical reaction in your body) called DPP-4 quickly breaks down GLP-1 in the blood.

DPP-4 inhibitors block the action of the DPP-4 enzyme. This makes GLP-1 last longer and increases the amount of GLP-1 in your blood. More GLP-1 means less glucose build-up in the blood. DPP-4 inhibitors come in pill form and are taken by mouth. They are used alone or in combination with other diabetes medicines.

They are also available in combination pills that contain a DPP-4 inhibitor and another type of diabetes medicine. Your dose of sitagliptin or saxagliptin (but not linagliptin) may need to be adjusted if you have kidney problems. GLP-1 receptor agonist medicines, also called incretin mimetics, are a type of incretin-based medicine for type 2 diabetes.

This type of medicine is based on the action of hormones called incretins, which help control how the pancreas works. One type of incretin, called GLP-1, causes your pancreas to produce more insulin after you eat and helps keep blood glucose levels in the normal range. These medicines (exenatide, dulaglutide, lixisenatide, liraglutide and semaglutide) copy, or mimic, the action of GLP-1 made by your body.

The effects of GLP-1 only last for a few minutes, but GLP-1 receptor agonists medicines can last for hours or days. GLP-1 receptor agonists come most commonly as a liquid, which you inject under the skin on your abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Depending on which medicine you use, you inject it either once or twice daily, or once weekly.

  • Semaglutide also comes as a pill dosed once daily.
  • GLP-1 receptor agonists are used alone or along with other diabetes medicines.
  • Sodium-Glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors is a class of diabetes medications that comes as a pill.
  • This group of medications stops the kidneys from taking glucose back into the blood and the excess glucose is released into the urine.

These medicines (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin) can be used alone or in combincation with other diabetes medications. Insulin secretagogues are one type of medicine for type 2 diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes don’t make enough insulin.

Insulin secretagogues help your pancreas make and release (or secrete) insulin. Insulin helps keep your blood glucose from being too high. Once your body gets the insulin it needs, you feel better. Your doctor might prescribe these insulin-releasing pills for you when you can’t reach your target blood glucose levels with a healthy diet, exercise, and other diabetes medicines.

Insulin-releasing medicines

Sulfonylureas (Generic names): Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glyburide Meglitinides (Generic names): Repaglinide, Nateglinide

TZDs, also called thiazolidinediones or “glitazones,” are a type of pill for type 2 diabetes. The generic names are:

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Pioglitazone (used most often) Rosiglitazone (rarely used)

TZDs help keep your blood glucose levels on target by decreasing insulin resistance and making body tissues more sensitive to insulin’s effects. Then glucose can enter your cells where it is needed. TZDs also cut down on the amount of glucose made by your liver, which can be far too much in people with type 2 diabetes.

Several other types of diabetes pills are available. Each type works in a different way. Rarely you might take a TZD as your only diabetes medicine but most often you take it with another type of diabetes pill, such as metformin or a sulfonylurea. Some people take combination pills that contain a TZD plus another type of diabetes medicine.

Questions to Ask Your Healthcare Provider

What else can I do to keep my blood glucose levels under control? How often should I have check-ups? What side effects can happen with my medicines? What should I do if I forget to take my diabetes medicine? Should I see a diabetes educator? Should I see an endocrinologist for my diabetes care? What type of diabetes do I have? What kind of medicine do I need for my diabetes? What are the risks and benefits of the medicine? Do I need to take insulin? What type? How often?

Editor(s): Jessica Abramowitz, M.D., Leonor Corsino, M.D., MHS, Dr. Tadas Vasaitis, PHD, Yen Dang, PharmD Last Updated: January 24, 2022 Endocrine Society.”Thyroid Cancer | Endocrine Society.”, Endocrine Society, 18 January 2022, : Diabetes Treatments

Is diabetes fully treatable?

What lifestyle changes can help me manage my diabetes? – Even though there’s no diabetes cure, diabetes can be treated and controlled, and some people may go into remission. To manage diabetes effectively, you need to do the following: Manage your blood sugar levels,

Now what to do to help keep them as near to normal as possible every day: Check your glucose levels frequently. Take your diabetes medicine regularly. And balance your food intake with medication, exercise, stress management, and good sleep habits. Plan what you eat at each meal. Stick to your diabetes eating plan as often as possible.

Bring healthy snacks with you. You’ll be less likely to snack on empty calories. Exercise regularly. Exercise helps you keep you fit, burns calories, and helps normalize your blood glucose levels. Keep up with your medical appointments. That includes your doctor, diabetes educator, ophthalmologist, dentist, podiatrist, and other health care professionals.

  • Weight Loss Surgery After weight loss surgery, many people with type 2 diabetes see their blood sugar levels return to near normal.
  • Some experts call this a remission.
  • It’s not unusual for people to no longer need diabetes medicines after weight loss surgery,
  • The more weight a person loses after surgery, the greater improvement in blood sugar control.

After surgery, if extra weight returns, your diabetes can return too. Reaching and keeping a healthy weight are very important for managing diabetes. You should also follow your recommended diabetes diet, exercise regularly, manage your stress, and see your doctor regularly for necessary checkups.

Can you stop being diabetic?

How can I lose weight? – Some people have lost a substantial amount of weight and put their diabetes into remission through lifestyle and diet changes or by having weight loss surgery (called bariatric surgery). There is no such thing as a special diet for people with diabetes or those aiming or diabetes reversal.

Can you just suddenly get diabetes?

Can symptoms appear suddenly? – In people with type 1 diabetes, the onset of symptoms can be very sudden, while in type 2 diabetes, they tend to come about more gradually, and sometimes there are no signs at all. Symptoms sometimes occur after a viral illness.

  • In some cases, a person may reach the point of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) before a type 1 diagnosis is made.
  • DKA occurs when blood glucose (blood sugar) is dangerously high and the body can’t get nutrients into the cells because of the absence of insulin.
  • The body then breaks down muscle and fat for energy, causing an accumulation of ketones in the blood and urine.
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Symptoms of DKA include a fruity odor on the breath, heavy, taxed breathing and vomiting. If left untreated, DKA can result in stupor, unconsciousness, and even death. People who have symptoms—of type 1 or of DKA—should contact their health care provider immediately for an accurate diagnosis.

  1. Eep in mind that these symptoms could signal other problems, too.
  2. Some people with type 1 have a “honeymoon” period, a brief remission of symptoms while the pancreas is still secreting some insulin.
  3. The honeymoon phase usually occurs after someone has started taking insulin.
  4. A honeymoon can last as little as a week or even up to a year.

But it’s important to know that the absence of symptoms doesn’t mean the diabetes is gone. The pancreas will eventually be unable to secrete insulin, and, if untreated, the symptoms will return.

Is diabetes curable and why?

What is type 1 diabetes? A Mayo Clinic expert explains – Learn more about type 1 diabetes from endocrinologist Yogish Kudva, M.B.B.S. I’m Dr. Yogish C. Kudva an endocrinologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of type 1 diabetes. What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

  1. Whether you’re looking for answers for yourself or someone you love.
  2. We are here to give you the best information available.
  3. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the insulin making cells of the pancreas.
  4. It’s estimated that about 1.25 million Americans live with it.
  5. People with type 1 diabetes don’t make enough insulin.

An important hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin allows your cells to store sugar or glucose and fat and produce energy. Unfortunately, there is no known cure. But treatment can prevent complications and also improve everyday life for patients with type 1 diabetes.

Lots of people with type 1 diabetes live a full life. And the more we learn and develop treatment for the disorder, the better the outcome. We don’t know what exactly causes type 1 diabetes. We believe that it is an auto-immune disorder where the body mistakenly destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas.

Typically, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin circulates, letting sugar enter your cells. This sugar or glucose, is the main source of energy for cells in the brain, muscle cells, and other tissues. However, once most insulin producing cells are destroyed, the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin, meaning the glucose can’t enter the cells, resulting in an excess of blood sugar floating in the bloodstream.

This can cause life-threatening complications. And this condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis. Although we don’t know what causes it, we do know certain factors can contribute to the onset of type 1 diabetes. Family history. Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing it.

Genetics. The presence of certain genes can also indicate an increased risk. Geography. Type 1 diabetes becomes more common as you travel away from the equator. Age, although it can occur at any age there are two noticeable peaks. The first occurs in children between four and seven years of age and the second is between 10 and 14 years old.

  1. Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can appear rather suddenly, especially in children.
  2. They may include increased thirst, frequent urination, bed wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed.
  3. Extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, fatigue and weakness, blurred vision, irritability, and other mood changes.

If you or your child are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should talk to your doctor. The best way to determine if you have type 1 diabetes is a blood test. There are different methods such as an A1C test, a random blood sugar test, or a fasting blood sugar test.

  • They are all effective and your doctor can help determine what’s appropriate for you.
  • If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may order additional tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes in the test called C-peptide, which measures the amount of insulin produced when checked simultaneously with a fasting glucose.
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These tests can help distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when a diagnosis is uncertain. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering what treatment looks like. It could mean taking insulin, counting carbohydrates, fat protein, and monitoring your glucose frequently, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight.

  1. Generally, those with type 1 diabetes will need lifelong insulin therapy.
  2. There are many different types of insulin and more are being developed that are more efficient.
  3. And what you may take may change.
  4. Again, your doctor will help you navigate what’s right for you.
  5. A significant advance in treatment from the last several years has been the development and availability of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pumps that automatically adjust insulin working with the continuous glucose monitor.

This type of treatment is the best treatment at this time for type 1 diabetes. This is an exciting time for patients and for physicians that are keen to develop, prescribe such therapies. Surgery is another option. A successful pancreas transplant can erase the need for additional insulin.

However, transplants aren’t always available, not successful and the procedure can pose serious risks. Sometimes it may outweigh the dangers of diabetes itself. So transplants are often reserved for those with very difficult to manage conditions. A successful transplant can bring life transforming results.

However, surgery is always a serious endeavor and requires ample research and concentration from you, your family, and your medical team. The fact that we don’t know what causes type 1 diabetes can be alarming. The fact that we don’t have a cure for it even more so.

  • But with the right doctor, medical team and treatment, type 1 diabetes can be managed.
  • So those who live with it can get on living.
  • If you would like to learn even more about type 1 diabetes, watch our other related videos or visit
  • We wish you well.
  • Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose).

Glucose is an important source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and tissues. It’s also the brain’s main source of fuel. The main cause of diabetes varies by type. But no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in the blood.

Too much sugar in the blood can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes happens when blood sugar levels are higher than normal. But the blood sugar levels aren’t high enough to be called diabetes.

And prediabetes can lead to diabetes unless steps are taken to prevent it. Gestational diabetes happens during pregnancy. But it may go away after the baby is born.

Can diabetes be reversed or cured?

Although there’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, studies show it’s possible for some people to reverse it. Through diet changes and weight loss, you may be able to reach and hold normal blood sugar levels without medication, This doesn’t mean you’re completely cured.

  • Type 2 diabetes is an ongoing disease.
  • Even if you’re in remission, which means you aren’t taking medication and your blood sugar levels stay in a healthy range, there’s always a chance that symptoms will return.
  • But it’s possible for some people to go years without trouble controlling their glucose and the health concerns that come with diabetes.

So how can you reverse diabetes ? The key seems to be weight loss. Not only can shedding pounds help you manage your diabetes, sometimes losing enough weight could help you live diabetes-free – especially if you’ve only had the disease for a few years and haven’t needed insulin.

Why can’t diabetes be cured?

Type 1 diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the pancreas produces little to no insulin, leading to increased blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). Because type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, there is no cure and it must be managed for the rest of a person’s life.