Abstract – Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a major health problem worldwide. This metabolic disease is indicated by high blood glucose levels due to insufficient insulin production by the pancreas. An inflammatory response occurs as a result of the immune response to high blood glucose levels as well as the presence of inflammatory mediators produced by adipocytes and macrophages in fat tissue.
- This low and chronic inflammation damages the pancreatic beta cells and leads to insufficient insulin production, which results in hyperglycemia.
- Hyperglycemia in diabetes is thought to cause dysfunction of the immune response, which fails to control the spread of invading pathogens in diabetic subjects.
Therefore, diabetic subjects are known to more susceptible to infections. The increased prevalence of T2D will increase the incidence of infectious diseases and related comorbidities. Objective: This review provides an overview of the immunological aspect of T2D and the possible mechanisms that result in increased infections in diabetics.
- Conclusion: A better understanding of how immune dysfunctions occur during hyperglycemia can lead to novel treatments and preventions for infectious diseases and T2D comorbidities, thus improving the outcome of infectious disease treatment in T2D patients.
- Eywords: Type 2 diabetes; comorbidity; hyperglycemia; immune dysfunction; infection; treatment outcome.
Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at [email protected].
Do diabetics get colds easier?
Diabetes raises your risk of catching a cold or the flu because it weakens your immune system, And when you’re sick, it’s harder to keep blood sugars under control, While your body fights the illness, it releases hormones that increase blood sugars and interfere with insulin ‘s blood-glucose-lowering effects.
Do all diabetics have a compromised immune system?
Having diabetes isn’t what makes someone’s immune system weaker, but chronic high blood sugars and out-of-range numbers can weaken the immune system, leaving people more susceptible to illness and complications from illnesses.
What infections are diabetics prone to?
Most Likely Infections If You Have Diabetes – When you have diabetes, you are especially prone to foot infections, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections, High blood sugar levels contribute to this process. As a result, the risk of infection is increased if your diabetes is poorly controlled.
What do diabetics get free?
How to get free prescriptions for diabetes medicine – If you take diabetes medicine, you’re entitled to free prescriptions for all your medicines. To claim your free prescriptions, you’ll need to apply for an exemption certificate. This is known as a PF57 form. To do this:
fill in a form at your GP surgeryyou should get the certificate in the post about a week later – it’ll last for 5 yearstake it to your pharmacy with your prescriptions
Save your receipts if you have to pay for diabetes medicine before you receive your exemption certificate. You can claim the money back if you include the receipts along with your completed PF57 form.
What should a diabetic eat when sick?
9 Dos and Don’ts of Managing Diabetes When You’re Sick However, there’s a proactive step you can take to prepare before your next cold or flu: Discuss a sick day plan with your doctor. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), this plan should outline the general steps you need to take when sick, such as:
How often you’ll need to test your blood sugarWhat to do if your blood sugar gets highWhen to test your What medications to takeWhat and how to eatWhen to call your doctor
Put your plan in writing, include your doctor’s contact information, and make sure the plan is available to a loved one or friend in case you need help.There are also many things you can do (or not do) to help keep your diabetes under control if you do get sick. The Dos and Don’ts of Diabetes Care When You’re Sick
DO drink plenty of fluids. Fluids are recommended for anyone who’s sick because diarrhea and vomiting can cause dehydration. People with diabetes should be even more vigilant about drinking fluids because levels lead to more urination, adding to your risk for dehydration.
- Choose water or sugar-free sports drinks to replace electrolytes and fluids, Garber says.
- DON’T skip or double up on medication doses.
- Garber stresses that you shouldn’t try to adjust your diabetes medication or insulin without your doctor’s advice.
- If it hasn’t already been outlined in your sick day plan, call your medical team to find out what to do if your blood sugar is unusually high or low.
DO check your blood sugar level regularly. When you’re sick, you’ll need to check your blood sugar more often. If blood sugar spikes over 300, the ADA recommends also checking ketones, which you can do with a urine test strip. DO pick diabetes-friendly cold medications.
- The ADA recommends asking a pharmacist to help you when you’re looking for over-the-counter medicines, if your doctor hasn’t already recommended the best ones for you.
- Try to find sugar-free syrup and be aware that decongestants can affect both levels and blood pressure.
- DON’T ignore symptoms of potential diabetes emergencies.
Your sick day plan should outline when to call your doctor, but some symptoms could signal a possible diabetes emergency. The ADA says these include:
Blood sugar levels that keep rising or are over 240Moderate to large amounts of ketones in your urineDry mouth or thirstVomiting for more than six hoursConfusionLoss of consciousness
Even if you’re not experiencing these symptoms, call any time you aren’t sure about your medications or how to care for yourself. DO eat small meals often. Stock up on foods that are easy for a sick stomach, such as soup, crackers, applesauce, and gelatin.
- Chicken noodle soup can do people a world of good,” says Garber.
- The ADA recommends 50 grams of carbohydrates every three to four hours, and you should generally try to get your usual daily calorie intake.
- If you can’t eat any solids, try frozen fruit pops, broth, pudding, or juice.
- DO keep a written record.
Write down your blood sugar test results, the times you take medications, when you eat and what you eat, and any new symptoms you experience, such as vomiting, diarrhea, fever, or abdominal pain. The ADA also recommends tracking your weight if you’re sick for several days.
DO wear a medical ID. Most sick days will pass without trouble, but if you ever lose consciousness or need to go to the emergency room, a medical ID will give vital information to medical professionals. DON’T isolate yourself. Although it may be tempting, Garber doesn’t recommend toughing it out alone.
Going to the doctor could mean you get flu medications or antibiotics early in your illness, so don’t hesitate to make an appointment. : 9 Dos and Don’ts of Managing Diabetes When You’re Sick
Why do diabetics do poorly with Covid?
Diabetes and Coronavirus – Early studies have shown that about 25% of people who went to the hospital with severe COVID-19 infections had diabetes, Those with diabetes were more likely to have serious complications and to die from the virus. One reason is that high blood sugar weakens the immune system and makes it less able to fight off infections.
Your risk of severe coronavirus infection is even higher if you also have another condition, like heart or lung disease, If you do get COVID-19, the infection could put you at greater risk for diabetes complications like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA happens when high levels of acids called ketones build up in your blood.
It can be very serious. Some people who catch the coronavirus have a dangerous body-wide response to it, called sepsis, To treat sepsis, doctors need to manage your body’s fluid and electrolyte levels. DKA causes you to lose electrolytes, which can make sepsis harder to control.