Apa Diabetes Mellitus?

Apa Diabetes Mellitus
A metabolic disorder caused by ineffective production or utilization of the hormone insulin. Because of the insulin disruption, the patient is unable to oxidize and utilize carbohydrates in food. Glucose accumulates in the blood, causing weakness, fatigue, and the appearance of sugar in the urine.

What is the difference between diabetes and diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus share the first word of their name and some of the same symptoms. But that’s where the similarities end. These two diseases aren’t related. They cause different problems and have very different treatments. Diabetes mellitus is more commonly known simply as diabetes,

  • It’s when your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin to control the amount of glucose, or sugar, in your blood.
  • Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition that has nothing to do with the pancreas or blood sugar.
  • Instead, it happens when your kidneys produce a lot of extra pee.
  • Normally, they filter your bloodstream to make about a quart or 2 each day.

When you have diabetes insipidus, it’s more like 3 to 20 quarts, and it’s mostly water. This dramatic loss of fluid makes you really thirsty.

Is diabetes mellitus always type 2?

Type 1 vs. Type 2 diabetes: What’s the difference? – Type 2 diabetes is not the same as Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesn’t make any insulin. In Type 2, your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin, and the insulin it is making doesn’t always work as it should.

Why is diabetes called mellitus?

Origin of the term ‘diabetes’ – The term diabetes is the shortened version of the full name diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is derived from the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon – to pass through and the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet.

  1. This is because in diabetes excess sugar is found in blood as well as the urine.
  2. It was known in the 17th century as the “pissing evil”.
  3. The term diabetes was probably coined by Apollonius of Memphis around 250 BC.
  4. Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425.

It was in 1675 that Thomas Willis added the word “‘mellitus'” to the word diabetes. This was because of the sweet taste of the urine. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians as is evident from their literature.

Is diabetes mellitus called sugar?

What is type 1 diabetes? A Mayo Clinic expert explains – Learn more about type 1 diabetes from endocrinologist Yogish Kudva, M.B.B.S. I’m Dr. Yogish C. Kudva an endocrinologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of type 1 diabetes. What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

  • Whether you’re looking for answers for yourself or someone you love.
  • We are here to give you the best information available.
  • Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the insulin making cells of the pancreas.
  • It’s estimated that about 1.25 million Americans live with it.
  • People with type 1 diabetes don’t make enough insulin.

An important hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin allows your cells to store sugar or glucose and fat and produce energy. Unfortunately, there is no known cure. But treatment can prevent complications and also improve everyday life for patients with type 1 diabetes.

  • Lots of people with type 1 diabetes live a full life.
  • And the more we learn and develop treatment for the disorder, the better the outcome.
  • We don’t know what exactly causes type 1 diabetes.
  • We believe that it is an auto-immune disorder where the body mistakenly destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas.

Typically, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin circulates, letting sugar enter your cells. This sugar or glucose, is the main source of energy for cells in the brain, muscle cells, and other tissues. However, once most insulin producing cells are destroyed, the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin, meaning the glucose can’t enter the cells, resulting in an excess of blood sugar floating in the bloodstream.

This can cause life-threatening complications. And this condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis. Although we don’t know what causes it, we do know certain factors can contribute to the onset of type 1 diabetes. Family history. Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing it.

Genetics. The presence of certain genes can also indicate an increased risk. Geography. Type 1 diabetes becomes more common as you travel away from the equator. Age, although it can occur at any age there are two noticeable peaks. The first occurs in children between four and seven years of age and the second is between 10 and 14 years old.

Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can appear rather suddenly, especially in children. They may include increased thirst, frequent urination, bed wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed. Extreme hunger, unintended weight loss, fatigue and weakness, blurred vision, irritability, and other mood changes.

If you or your child are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should talk to your doctor. The best way to determine if you have type 1 diabetes is a blood test. There are different methods such as an A1C test, a random blood sugar test, or a fasting blood sugar test.

They are all effective and your doctor can help determine what’s appropriate for you. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may order additional tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes in the test called C-peptide, which measures the amount of insulin produced when checked simultaneously with a fasting glucose.

These tests can help distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when a diagnosis is uncertain. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering what treatment looks like. It could mean taking insulin, counting carbohydrates, fat protein, and monitoring your glucose frequently, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight.

  1. Generally, those with type 1 diabetes will need lifelong insulin therapy.
  2. There are many different types of insulin and more are being developed that are more efficient.
  3. And what you may take may change.
  4. Again, your doctor will help you navigate what’s right for you.
  5. A significant advance in treatment from the last several years has been the development and availability of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pumps that automatically adjust insulin working with the continuous glucose monitor.
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This type of treatment is the best treatment at this time for type 1 diabetes. This is an exciting time for patients and for physicians that are keen to develop, prescribe such therapies. Surgery is another option. A successful pancreas transplant can erase the need for additional insulin.

  • However, transplants aren’t always available, not successful and the procedure can pose serious risks.
  • Sometimes it may outweigh the dangers of diabetes itself.
  • So transplants are often reserved for those with very difficult to manage conditions.
  • A successful transplant can bring life transforming results.

However, surgery is always a serious endeavor and requires ample research and concentration from you, your family, and your medical team. The fact that we don’t know what causes type 1 diabetes can be alarming. The fact that we don’t have a cure for it even more so.

  • But with the right doctor, medical team and treatment, type 1 diabetes can be managed.
  • So those who live with it can get on living.
  • If you would like to learn even more about type 1 diabetes, watch our other related videos or visit mayoclinic.org.
  • We wish you well.
  • Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose).

Glucose is an important source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and tissues. It’s also the brain’s main source of fuel. The main cause of diabetes varies by type. But no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in the blood.

  1. Too much sugar in the blood can lead to serious health problems.
  2. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
  3. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes.
  4. Prediabetes happens when blood sugar levels are higher than normal.
  5. But the blood sugar levels aren’t high enough to be called diabetes.

And prediabetes can lead to diabetes unless steps are taken to prevent it. Gestational diabetes happens during pregnancy. But it may go away after the baby is born.

Is diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2?

What are the different types of diabetes? – The types of diabetes are:

: This type is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. In this case, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed. Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1. It’s usually diagnosed in children and young adults (but can develop at any age). It was once better known as “juvenile” diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day. This is why it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. With this type, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or your body’s cells don’t respond normally to the insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes. Up to 95% of people with diabetes have Type 2. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. Other common names for Type 2 include adult-onset diabetes and insulin-resistant diabetes. Your parents or grandparents may have called it “having a touch of sugar.” This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. : This type develops in some women during their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational diabetes you’re at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later on in life.

Less common types of diabetes include:

Monogenic diabetes syndromes: These are rare inherited forms of diabetes accounting for up to 4% of all cases. Examples are neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: This is a form of diabetes specific to people with this disease. Drug or chemical-induced diabetes: Examples of this type happen after organ transplant, following HIV/AIDS treatment or are associated with glucocorticoid steroid use.

is a distinct rare condition that causes your kidneys to produce a large amount of urine.

Does type 2 diabetes require insulin?

Most people who are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes begin initial treatment with a combination of diet, exercise, and an oral (pill or tablet) medication. Over time, some people will need to add insulin or another injectable medication because their blood sugar levels are not well managed with oral medication.

See also:  When Does Type 2 Diabetes Occur?

Can diabetes mellitus be cured?

Is there a cure for type 1 diabetes? – In type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system. This means you can’t make the insulin you need to live. To stop type 1 diabetes we need to disrupt the immune system’s attack on beta cells.

Is diabetes mellitus for life?

The dangers of diabetes – Diabetes is a very dangerous condition, especially if not properly managed. It is a leading cause of death worldwide and can have significant complications that affect all organs. It is associated with an increased risk of heart attacks, strokes and kidney disease. It can affect:

the nerves, increasing your risk to develop a condition known as neuropathy skin, increasing your risk to develop skin infections and other skin disorders the eyes, increasing your risk for retinopathy, cataract and glaucoma blood vessels, increasing your risk for developing peripheral vascular disease

If left untreated, diabetes can cause metabolic disturbances like diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious condition that requires a hospital admission. In addition, severe long-term consequences can lead to limb amputation, blindness, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment and cardiovascular disease,

How to diagnose diabetes mellitus?

Glucose Tolerance Test – This measures your blood sugar before and after you drink a liquid that contains glucose. You’ll fast (not eat) overnight before the test and have your blood drawn to determine your fasting blood sugar level. Then you’ll drink the liquid and have your blood sugar level checked 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours afterward.

What drink lowers blood sugar?

4. Drink water and stay hydrated – Drinking enough water could help you keep your blood sugar levels within healthy ranges. In addition to preventing dehydration, it helps your kidneys flush out any excess sugar through urine. One review of observational studies showed that those who drank more water had a lower risk of developing high blood sugar levels ( 19 ).

  • Drinking water regularly may rehydrate the blood, lower blood sugar levels, and reduce diabetes risk ( 20, 21 ).
  • Eep in mind that water and other zero-calorie drinks are best.
  • Avoid sugar-sweetened options, as these can raise blood glucose, drive weight gain, and increase diabetes risk ( 22, 23 ).
  • Summary Staying hydrated can reduce blood sugar levels and diabetes risk.

Choose water and zero-calorie drinks and avoid sugar-sweetened beverages.

What is the fastest way to cure type 2 diabetes?

Here’s how healthier habits may help some people reverse or better manage the disease. – Diabetes is a very common but serious medical condition. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 34 million Americans have it, with about 90-95% of them having type 2 diabetes. About 88 million people have prediabetes, a precursor to type 2 diabetes.

  1. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes.
  2. But it may be possible to reverse the condition to a point where you do not need medication to manage it and your body does not suffer ill effects from having blood sugar levels that are too high.
  3. Making positive lifestyle changes such as eating a well-balanced diet, exercising regularly and getting down to a healthy weight (and maintaining it) are the key to possibly reversing or managing type 2 diabetes.

Other lifestyle changes may also help, including not smoking, getting enough sleep, limiting alcohol and managing stress. However, for some people this is still not enough and medication is needed to manage the condition.

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 Mellitus?

The main difference between the type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 diabetes is a genetic condition that often shows up early in life, and type 2 is mainly lifestyle-related and develops over time. With type 1 diabetes, your immune system is attacking and destroying the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.

  • Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have things in common, there are lots of differences.
  • Like what causes them, who they affect, and how you should manage them.
  • For a start, type 1 affects 8% of everyone with diabetes.
  • While type 2 diabetes affects about 90%.
  • Some people get confused between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

This can mean you have to explain that what works for one type doesn’t work for the other, and that there are different causes. The main thing to remember is that both are as serious as each other. Having high blood glucose (or sugar) levels can lead to serious health complications, no matter whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Can you stop being type 2 diabetes?

Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented? – Yes! You can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes with proven, achievable lifestyle changes—such as losing a small amount of weight and getting more physically active—even if you’re at high risk. Read on to find out about CDC’s lifestyle change program and how you can join.

Is type 2 diabetes better or worse?

Treatments for diabetes – If you have either type of diabetes, your treatment will involve maintaining your blood sugar level at a safe level. How you go about that will depend on the type you have. Treating type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition and is managed with a combination of insulin medication and lifestyle choices.

  1. People with type 1 diabetes supplement their insulin levels with injections or an insulin pump,
  2. Additionally, it is recommended that people with this condition maintain a healthy body weight, eat a balanced diet, exercise often, and check their blood sugar levels as prescribed.
  3. Treating type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is also managed through a combination of medication and lifestyle choices.
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If you have type 2 diabetes, you’ll need to check your blood sugar levels to ensure that they are in a safe zone. Your doctor might prescribe medication to help keep your levels where they should be. Experts also recommend eating a healthy, balanced diet and getting plenty of exercise,

  • Possible complications and side effects Type 1 and type 2 diabetes can have very serious side effects if they are not diagnosed or managed well.
  • One is not better or worse than the other.
  • Both conditions require careful and mindful management.
  • If your cells do not get the sugar they need to function, they will begin to die.

Blood sugar that is too high or too low is dangerous, especially to your brain. It is essential to manage your insulin and sugar levels to avoid loss of consciousness, organ damage, and other serious complications. Apa Diabetes Mellitus

What is Type 2 diabetes mellitus called?

Type 2 diabetes
Other names Diabetes mellitus type 2; adult-onset diabetes; noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
A blue circle is the universal symbol of diabetes
Specialty Endocrinology
Symptoms Increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, increased hunger
Complications Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, diabetic ketoacidosis, heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy, kidney failure, amputations
Usual onset Middle or older age
Duration Long term
Causes Obesity, lack of exercise, genetics
Diagnostic method Blood test
Prevention Maintaining normal weight, exercising, eating properly
Treatment Dietary changes, metformin, insulin, bariatric surgery
Prognosis 10 year shorter life expectancy
Frequency 392 million (2015)

Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin, Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss,

  • Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores (wounds) that do not heal.
  • Often symptoms come on slowly.
  • Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations,

The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. Some people are genetically more at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes,

  1. In type 1 diabetes there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas,
  2. Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).

Type 2 diabetes is largely preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet (high in fruits and vegetables and low in sugar and saturated fats). Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes, If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.

Many people may eventually also require insulin injections. In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those who are not on insulin therapy. Bariatric surgery often improves diabetes in those who are obese. Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity.

As of 2015 there were approximately 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Typically it begins in middle or older age, although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy.

Which drug can cause diabetes mellitus?

Category Agents
Beta blockers Atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol
Hypolipidemic Niacin (nicotinic acid) ¶, statins
Thiazide diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, chlorothiazide, indapamide

What is type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus?

The main difference between the type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 diabetes is a genetic condition that often shows up early in life, and type 2 is mainly lifestyle-related and develops over time. With type 1 diabetes, your immune system is attacking and destroying the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.

Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have things in common, there are lots of differences. Like what causes them, who they affect, and how you should manage them. For a start, type 1 affects 8% of everyone with diabetes. While type 2 diabetes affects about 90%. Some people get confused between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

This can mean you have to explain that what works for one type doesn’t work for the other, and that there are different causes. The main thing to remember is that both are as serious as each other. Having high blood glucose (or sugar) levels can lead to serious health complications, no matter whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.